|(a) Purpose. The standards identified in this section
are performance standards to be used to inform the training, appraisal,
and professional development of teachers.
(1) Standard 1--Instructional Planning and Delivery.
Teachers demonstrate their understanding of instructional planning
and delivery by providing standards-based, data-driven, differentiated
instruction that engages students, makes appropriate use of technology,
and makes learning relevant for today's learners.
(A) Teachers design clear, well organized, sequential
lessons that build on students' prior knowledge.
(i) Teachers develop lessons that build coherently
toward objectives based on course content, curriculum scope and sequence,
and expected student outcomes.
(ii) Teachers effectively communicate goals, expectations,
and objectives to help all students reach high levels of achievement.
(iii) Teachers connect students' prior understanding
and real-world experiences to new content and contexts, maximizing
(B) Teachers design developmentally appropriate, standards-driven
lessons that reflect evidence-based best practices.
(i) Teachers plan instruction that is developmentally
appropriate, is standards driven, and motivates students to learn.
(ii) Teachers use a range of instructional strategies,
appropriate to the content area, to make subject matter accessible
to all students.
(iii) Teachers use and adapt resources, technologies,
and standards-aligned instructional materials to promote student success
in meeting learning goals.
(C) Teachers design lessons to meet the needs of diverse
learners, adapting methods when appropriate.
(i) Teachers differentiate instruction, aligning methods
and techniques to diverse student needs, including acceleration, remediation,
and implementation of individual education plans.
(ii) Teachers plan student groupings, including pairings
and individualized and small-group instruction, to facilitate student
(iii) Teachers integrate the use of oral, written,
graphic, kinesthetic, and/or tactile methods to teach key concepts.
(D) Teachers communicate clearly and accurately and
engage students in a manner that encourages students' persistence
and best efforts.
(i) Teachers ensure that the learning environment features
a high degree of student engagement by facilitating discussion and
student-centered activities as well as leading direct instruction.
(ii) Teachers validate each student's comments and
questions, utilizing them to advance learning for all students.
(iii) Teachers encourage all students to overcome obstacles
and remain persistent in the face of challenges, providing them with
support in achieving their goals.
(E) Teachers promote complex, higher-order thinking,
leading class discussions and activities that provide opportunities
for deeper learning.
(i) Teachers set high expectations and create challenging
learning experiences for students, encouraging them to apply disciplinary
and cross-disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems.
(ii) Teachers provide opportunities for students to
engage in individual and collaborative critical thinking and problem
(iii) Teachers incorporate technology that allows students
to interact with the curriculum in more significant and effective
ways, helping them reach mastery.
(F) Teachers consistently check for understanding,
give immediate feedback, and make lesson adjustments as necessary.
(i) Teachers monitor and assess student progress to
ensure that their lessons meet students' needs.
(ii) Teachers provide immediate feedback to students
in order to reinforce their learning and ensure that they understand
(iii) Teachers adjust content delivery in response
to student progress through the use of developmentally appropriate
strategies that maximize student engagement.
(2) Standard 2--Knowledge of Students and Student Learning.
Teachers work to ensure high levels of learning, social-emotional
development, and achievement outcomes for all students, taking into
consideration each student's educational and developmental backgrounds
and focusing on each student's needs.
(A) Teachers demonstrate the belief that all students
have the potential to achieve at high levels and support all students
in their pursuit of social-emotional learning and academic success.
(i) Teachers purposefully utilize learners' individual
strengths as a basis for academic and social-emotional growth.
(ii) Teachers create a community of learners in an
inclusive environment that views differences in learning and background
as educational assets.
(iii) Teachers accept responsibility for the growth
of all of their students, persisting in their efforts to ensure high
levels of growth on the part of each learner.
(B) Teachers acquire, analyze, and use background information
(familial, cultural, educational, linguistic, and developmental characteristics)
to engage students in learning.
(i) Teachers connect learning, content, and expectations
to students' prior knowledge, life experiences, and interests in meaningful
(ii) Teachers understand the unique qualities of students
with exceptional needs, including disabilities and giftedness, and
know how to effectively address these needs through instructional
strategies and resources.
(iii) Teachers understand the role of language and
culture in learning and know how to modify their practices to support
language acquisition so that language is comprehensible and instruction
is fully accessible.
(C) Teachers facilitate each student's learning by
employing evidence-based practices and concepts related to learning
and social-emotional development.
(i) Teachers understand how learning occurs and how
learners develop, construct meaning, and acquire knowledge and skills.
(ii) Teachers identify readiness for learning and understand
how development in one area may affect students' performance in other
(iii) Teachers apply evidence-based strategies to address
individual student learning needs and differences, adjust their instruction,
and support the learning needs of each student.
(3) Standard 3--Content Knowledge and Expertise. Teachers
exhibit a comprehensive understanding of their content, discipline,
and related pedagogy as demonstrated through the quality of the design
and execution of lessons and their ability to match objectives and
activities to relevant state standards.
(A) Teachers understand the major concepts, key themes,
multiple perspectives, assumptions, processes of inquiry, structure,
and real-world applications of their grade-level and subject-area
(i) Teachers have expertise in how their content vertically
and horizontally aligns with the grade-level/subject-area continuum,
leading to an integrated curriculum across grade levels and content
(ii) Teachers identify gaps in students' knowledge
of subject matter and communicate with their leaders and colleagues
to ensure that these gaps are adequately addressed across grade levels
and subject areas.
(iii) Teachers keep current with developments, new
content, new approaches, and changing methods of instructional delivery
within their discipline.
(B) Teachers design and execute quality lessons that
are consistent with the concepts of their specific discipline, are
aligned to state standards, and demonstrate their content expertise.
(i) Teachers organize curriculum to facilitate student
understanding of the subject matter.
(ii) Teachers understand, actively anticipate, and
adapt instruction to address common misunderstandings and preconceptions.
(iii) Teachers promote literacy and the academic language
within the discipline and make discipline-specific language accessible
to all learners.
(C) Teachers demonstrate content-specific pedagogy
that meets the needs of diverse learners, utilizing engaging instructional
materials to connect prior content knowledge to new learning.
(i) Teachers teach both the key content knowledge and
the key skills of the discipline.
(ii) Teachers make appropriate and authentic connections
across disciplines, subjects, and students' real-world experiences.
(4) Standard 4--Learning Environment. Teachers interact
with students in respectful ways at all times, maintaining a physically
and emotionally safe, supportive learning environment that is characterized
by efficient and effective routines, clear expectations for student
behavior, and organization that maximizes student learning.
(A) Teachers create a mutually respectful, collaborative,
and safe community of learners by using knowledge of students' development
(i) Teachers embrace students' backgrounds and experiences
as an asset in their learning environment.
(ii) Teachers maintain and facilitate respectful, supportive,
positive, and productive interactions with and among students.
(iii) Teachers establish and sustain learning environments
that are developmentally appropriate and respond to students' needs,
strengths, and personal experiences.
(B) Teachers organize their classrooms in a safe and
accessible manner that maximizes learning.
(i) Teachers arrange the physical environment to maximize
student learning and to ensure that all students have access to resources.
(ii) Teachers create a physical classroom set-up that
is flexible and accommodates the different learning needs of students.
(C) Teachers establish, implement, and communicate
consistent routines for effective classroom management, including
clear expectations for student behavior.
(i) Teachers implement behavior management systems
to maintain an environment where all students can learn effectively.
(ii) Teachers maintain a strong culture of individual
and group accountability for class expectations.
(iii) Teachers cultivate student ownership in developing
classroom culture and norms.
(D) Teachers lead and maintain classrooms where students
are actively engaged in learning as indicated by their level of motivation
and on-task behavior.
(i) Teachers maintain a culture that is based on high
expectations for student performance and encourages students to be
self-motivated, taking responsibility for their own learning.
(ii) Teachers maximize instructional time, including
(iii) Teachers manage and facilitate groupings in order
to maximize student collaboration, participation, and achievement.
(iv) Teachers communicate regularly, clearly, and appropriately
with parents and families about student progress, providing detailed
and constructive feedback and partnering with families in furthering
their students' achievement goals.
(5) Standard 5--Data-Driven Practice. Teachers use
formal and informal methods to assess student growth aligned to instructional
goals and course objectives and regularly review and analyze multiple
sources of data to measure student progress and adjust instructional
strategies and content delivery as needed.
(A) Teachers implement both formal and informal methods
of measuring student progress.
(i) Teachers gauge student progress and ensure student
mastery of content knowledge and skills by providing assessments aligned
to instructional objectives and outcomes that are accurate measures
of student learning.
(ii) Teachers vary methods of assessing learning to
accommodate students' learning needs, linguistic differences, and/or
varying levels of background knowledge.
(B) Teachers set individual and group learning goals
for students by using preliminary data and communicate these goals
with students and families to ensure mutual understanding of expectations.
(i) Teachers develop learning plans and set academic
as well as social-emotional learning goals for each student in response
to previous outcomes from formal and informal assessments.
(ii) Teachers involve all students in self-assessment,
goal setting, and monitoring progress.
(iii) Teachers communicate with students and families
regularly about the importance of collecting data and monitoring progress
of student outcomes, sharing timely and comprehensible feedback so
they understand students' goals and progress.
(C) Teachers regularly collect, review, and analyze
data to monitor student progress.
(i) Teachers analyze and review data in a timely, thorough,
accurate, and appropriate manner, both individually and with colleagues,
to monitor student learning.
(ii) Teachers combine results from different measures
to develop a holistic picture of students' strengths and learning
(D) Teachers utilize the data they collect and analyze
to inform their instructional strategies and adjust short- and long-term