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RULE §26.3Definitions

The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. These definitions also clarify the interpretation of terms and phrases used in the Antiquities Code of Texas but not defined therein

  (1) Accession--The formal acceptance of a collection and its recording into the holdings of a curatorial facility and generally includes a transfer of title. For held-in-trust collections, stewardship but not title is transferred to the curatorial facility.

  (2) Antiquities Advisory Board--A ten-member board that advises the commission in reviewing matters related to the Antiquities Code of Texas.

  (3) Antiquities Permit or Permit--Authorization for work on a designated or potential State Antiquities Landmark, or survey investigations to determine if cultural resources are present. Permit types include Archeological Permits (§26.15 of this title) and Historic Buildings and Structures Permits (§26.22 of this title).

  (4) Applicant--Relative to an Antiquities Permit, an applicant is the controlling agency, organization, or political subdivision having administrative control over a publicly owned landmark or the owner of a privately owned landmark. Applicant may also refer to an individual or private group that desires to nominate a building or site for landmark designation.

  (5) Archeological site--Any land or marine-based place containing evidence of prehistoric or historic human activity, including but not limited to the following:

    (A) Habitation sites. Habitation sites are areas or structures where people live or have lived on a permanent or temporary basis.

    (B) Native American open campsites which were occupied on a temporary, seasonal, or intermittent basis.

    (C) Rock shelters, in general, are a special kind of campsite. These sites are located in caves or under rock overhangs and have been occupied either: temporarily, seasonally, or intermittently.

    (D) Non-Native American campsites are the cultural remains of activities by people who are not Native American.

    (E) Residence sites are those where routine daily activities were carried out and which were intended for year-round use.

    (F) Non-Native American sites may include, in addition to the main structure, outbuildings, water systems, trash dumps, garden areas, driveways, and other remains that were an integral part of the site when it was inhabited.

    (G) Non-habitation sites. Non-habitation sites result from use during specialized activities and may include standing structures.

      (i) Rock art and graffiti sites consist of symbols or representations that have been painted, ground, carved, sculpted, scratched, or pecked on or into the surface of rocks, wood, or metal, including but not limited to Native American pictographs and petroglyphs, historical graffiti and inscriptions.

      (ii) Mines, quarry areas, and lithic procurement sites are those from which raw materials such as flint, clay, coal, minerals, or other materials were collected or mined for future use.

      (iii) Game procurement and processing sites are areas where game was killed or butchered for food or hides.

      (iv) Fortifications, battlefields, training grounds and skirmish sites including fortifications of the historic period and the central areas of encounters between opposing forces, whether a major battleground or areas of small skirmishes.

      (v) Cache--A collection of artifacts that are deliberately hidden for future use. Caches are often discovered in burials or in caves and usually consist of ceremonial and ritual objects, functional objects or emergency food supplies.

  (6) Archeological Survey Standards for Texas--Minimum survey standards developed by the commission in consultation with the Council of Texas Archeologists.

  (7) Artifacts--The tangible objects of the past that relate to human life and culture. Examples include, but are not limited to projectile points, tools, documents, art forms, and technologies.

  (8) Board--The Antiquities Advisory Board.

  (9) Building--A structure created to shelter any form of human activity, such as a courthouse, city hall, church, hotel, house, barn, or similar structure. Building may refer to a historically related complex such as a courthouse and jail or a house and barn.

  (10) Burials and burial pits--Marked and unmarked locales of a human burial or burials. Burials and burial pits may contain the remains of one or more individuals located in a common grave in a locale. The site area may contain gravestones, markers, containers, coverings, garments, vessels, tools, and other grave objects or could be evidenced by the presence of depressions, pit feature stains, or other archeological evidence.

  (11) Cemetery--A place that is used or intended to be used for interment, and includes a graveyard, burial park, unknown cemetery, abandoned cemetery, mausoleum, or any other area containing one or more graves or unidentified graves.

    (A) Abandoned cemetery--A non-perpetual care cemetery containing one or more graves and possessing cemetery elements for which no cemetery organization exists and which is not otherwise maintained by any caretakers. It may or may not be recorded in the deed records of the county in which it lies.

    (B) Unidentified grave--A grave that is not marked in a manner that provides the identity of the interment.

    (C) Unknown cemetery--An abandoned cemetery evidenced by the presence of marked or unmarked graves that does not appear on a map or in deed records.

  (12) Commission--The Texas Historical Commission and its staff.

  (13) Committee, or Antiquities Committee, or Texas Antiquities Committee--As redefined by the 74th Texas Legislature within §191.003 of the Texas Natural Resources Code, committee means the commission and/or staff members of the commission.

  (14) Conservation--Scientific laboratory processes for cleaning, stabilizing, restoring, preserving artifacts, and the preservation of buildings, sites, structures and objects.

  (15) Council of Texas Archeologists--A non-profit voluntary organization that promotes the goals of professional archeology in the State of Texas.

  (16) Council of Texas Archeologists Guidelines--Professional and ethical standards which provide a code of self-regulation for archeological professionals in Texas with regard to field methods, reporting, and curation.

  (17) Cultural landscape--A geographic area, associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values. Cultural landscapes include historic sites, historic designed landscapes, and historic vernacular landscapes, as further described in the National Park Service's Preservation Brief 36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes.

  (18) Cultural resource--Any building, site, structure, object, artifact, historic shipwreck, landscape, location of historical, archeological, educational, or scientific interest, including, but not limited to, prehistoric and historic Native American or aboriginal campsites, dwellings, and habitation sites, archeological sites of every character, treasure embedded in the earth, sunken or abandoned ships and wrecks of the sea or any part of the contents thereof, maps, records, documents, books, artifacts, and implements of culture in any way related to the inhabitants' prehistory, history, government, or culture. Examples of cultural resources include Native American mounds and campgrounds, aboriginal lithic resource areas, early industrial and engineering sites, rock art, early cottage and craft industry sites, bison kill sites, cemeteries, battlegrounds, all manner of historic buildings and structures, local historical records, cultural landscapes, etc.

  (19) Curatorial facility--A museum or repository.

  (20) Default--Failure to fulfill all conditions of a permit or contract, issued or granted to permittee(s), sponsors, and principal investigator or investigative firm, before the permit has expired.

  (21) Defaulted permit--A permit that has expired without all permit terms and conditions having been met before the permit expiration date.

  (22) Designated historic district--An area of archeological, architectural, or historical significance that is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, either individually or as a historic district; designated as a landmark, or nominated for designation as a landmark; or identified by State agencies or political subdivisions of the State as a historically sensitive site, district, or area. This includes historical designation by local landmark commissions, boards, or other public authorities, or through local preservation ordinances.

  (23) Destructive analysis--Destroying all or a portion of an object or sample to gain specialized information. For purposes of this chapter, it does not include analysis of objects or samples prior to their being accessioned by a curatorial facility.

  (24) Discovery--The act of locating, recording, and reporting a cultural resource.

  (25) Disposal--The discard of an object or sample after being recovered and prior to accession, or after deaccession.

  (26) District--A significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects unified historically or aesthetically by plan or physical development. See also "designated historic district."

  (27) Eligible--Archeological sites or other historic properties that meet the criteria set forth in §§26.10 - 26.12 and §26.19 of these titles (relating to Criteria for Evaluating Archeological Sites and Verifying Cemeteries, Criteria for Shipwrecks, Criteria for Evaluating Caches and Collections, and Criteria for Evaluating Historical Buildings and Structures, respectively) are eligible for official landmark designation.

  (28) Exhumation--The excavation of human burials or cemeteries and its associated funerary objects by a professional archeologist, or principal investigator.

  (29) Groundbreaking--Construction or earth moving activities that disturb lands owned or controlled by state agencies or political subdivisions of the state.

  (30) Held-in-trust collection--Those state-associated collections under the authority of the commission that are placed in a curatorial facility for care and management; stewardship is transferred to that curatorial facility but not ownership.

  (31) Historic buildings and structures permit--Historic buildings and structures permits are those issued for work to buildings, structures, cultural landscapes, and non-archeological sites, objects, and districts designated or nominated for designation as landmarks.

  (32) Historic property--A district, site, building, structure or object significant in American history, architecture, engineering, archeology or culture.

  (33) Historic time period--For the purposes of landmark designation, this time period is defined as extending from A.D. 1500 to 50 years before the present.

  (34) Human remains--The body of a decedent.

  (35) Integrity--The authenticity of a property's historic identity, evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property's historic or prehistoric period, including the property's location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.

  (36) Interment--The intended permanent disposition of human remains by entombment, burial, or placement in a niche.

  (37) Investigation--Archeological or architectural activity including, but not limited to: reconnaissance or intensive survey, testing, exhumation, or data recovery; underwater archeological survey, test excavation, or data recovery excavations; monitoring; measured drawings; or photographic documentation.

  (38) Investigative firm--A company or scientific institution that has full-time experienced research personnel capable of handling investigations and employs a principal investigator, and/or project architect, or other project professional as applicable under "professional personnel" in paragraph (52) of this section. The company or institution holds equal responsibilities with the professional personnel to complete requirements under an Antiquities Permit.

  (39) Land-owning or controlling agency--Any state agency or political subdivision of the state that owns or controls the land(s) in question.

  (40) Landmark--A State Antiquities Landmark.

  (41) Marker--An informational aluminum sign erected by or with the permission of the Texas Historical Commission.

  (42) Mitigation--The amelioration of the potential total or partial loss of significant cultural resources. For example, mitigation for removal of a deteriorated historic building feature might include photographs and drawings of the feature, and installing a replacement that matches the original in form, material, color, etc. Mitigation for the loss of an archeological site might be accomplished through data recovery actions, to preserve or recover an appropriate amount of data by application of current professional techniques and procedures, as defined in the permit's scope of work.


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