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TITLE 19EDUCATION
PART 2TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY
CHAPTER 111TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR MATHEMATICS
SUBCHAPTER CHIGH SCHOOL
RULE §111.48Algebraic Reasoning, Adopted 2015 (One Credit)

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisite: Algebra I.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) The desire to achieve educational excellence is the driving force behind the Texas essential knowledge and skills for mathematics, guided by the college and career readiness standards. By embedding statistics, probability, and finance, while focusing on fluency and solid understanding, Texas will lead the way in mathematics education and prepare all Texas students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century.

  (2) The process standards describe ways in which students are expected to engage in the content. The placement of the process standards at the beginning of the knowledge and skills listed for each grade and course is intentional. The process standards weave the other knowledge and skills together so that students may be successful problem solvers and use mathematics efficiently and effectively in daily life. The process standards are integrated at every grade level and course. When possible, students will apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. Students will use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution. Students will select appropriate tools such as real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology and techniques such as mental math, estimation, and number sense to solve problems. Students will effectively communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations such as symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language. Students will use mathematical relationships to generate solutions and make connections and predictions. Students will analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas. Students will display, explain, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

  (3) In Algebraic Reasoning, students will build on the knowledge and skills for mathematics in Kindergarten-Grade 8 and Algebra I, continue with the development of mathematical reasoning related to algebraic understandings and processes, and deepen a foundation for studies in subsequent mathematics courses. Students will broaden their knowledge of functions and relationships, including linear, quadratic, square root, rational, cubic, cube root, exponential, absolute value, and logarithmic functions. Students will study these functions through analysis and application that includes explorations of patterns and structure, number and algebraic methods, and modeling from data using tools that build to workforce and college readiness such as probes, measurement tools, and software tools, including spreadsheets.

  (4) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:

    (A) apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace;

    (B) use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution;

    (C) select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems;

    (D) communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate;

    (E) create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas;

    (F) analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas; and

    (G) display, explain, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

  (2) Patterns and structure. The student applies mathematical processes to connect finite differences or common ratios to attributes of functions. The student is expected to:

    (A) determine the patterns that identify the relationship between a function and its common ratio or related finite differences as appropriate, including linear, quadratic, cubic, and exponential functions;

    (B) classify a function as linear, quadratic, cubic, and exponential when a function is represented tabularly using finite differences or common ratios as appropriate;

    (C) determine the function that models a given table of related values using finite differences and its restricted domain and range; and

    (D) determine a function that models real-world data and mathematical contexts using finite differences such as the age of a tree and its circumference, figurative numbers, average velocity, and average acceleration.

  (3) Patterns and structure. The student applies mathematical processes to understand the connections among representations of functions and combinations of functions, including the constant function, f(x) = x, f(x) = x 2 , f(x) = √x, f(x) = 1 /x , f(x) = x 3, f(x) = 3 √x, f(x) = bx , f(x) = |x |, and f(x) = logb (x) where b is 10 or e; functions and their inverses; and key attributes of these functions. The student is expected to:

    (A) compare and contrast the key attributes, including domain, range, maxima, minima, and intercepts, of a set of functions such as a set comprised of a linear, a quadratic, and an exponential function or a set comprised of an absolute value, a quadratic, and a square root function tabularly, graphically, and symbolically;

    (B) compare and contrast the key attributes of a function and its inverse when it exists, including domain, range, maxima, minima, and intercepts, tabularly, graphically, and symbolically;

    (C) verify that two functions are inverses of each other tabularly and graphically such as situations involving compound interest and interest rate, velocity and braking distance, and Fahrenheit-Celsius conversions;

    (D) represent a resulting function tabularly, graphically, and symbolically when functions are combined or separated using arithmetic operations such as combining a 20% discount and a 6% sales tax on a sale to determine h(x), the total sale, f(x) = 0.8 x, g(x) = 0.06(0.8x), and h(x) = f(x) + g(x);

    (E) model a situation using function notation when the output of one function is the input of a second function such as determining a function h(x) = g(f(x)) = 1.06(0.8x) for the final purchase price, h(x) of an item with price x dollars representing a 20% discount, f(x) = 0.8x followed by a 6% sales tax, g(x) = 1.06x; and

    (F) compare and contrast a function and possible functions that can be used to build it tabularly, graphically, and symbolically such as a quadratic function that results from multiplying two linear functions.

  (4) Number and algebraic methods. The student applies mathematical processes to simplify and perform operations on functions represented in a variety of ways, including real-world situations. The student is expected to:

    (A) connect tabular representations to symbolic representations when adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomial functions arising from mathematical and real-world situations such as applications involving surface area and volume;

    (B) compare and contrast the results when adding two linear functions and multiplying two linear functions that are represented tabularly, graphically, and symbolically;

    (C) determine the quotient of a polynomial function of degree three and of degree four when divided by a polynomial function of degree one and of degree two when represented tabularly and symbolically; and

    (D) determine the linear factors of a polynomial function of degree two and of degree three when represented symbolically and tabularly and graphically where appropriate.

  (5) Number and algebraic methods. The student applies mathematical processes to represent, simplify, and perform operations on matrices and to solve systems of equations using matrices. The student is expected to:

    (A) add and subtract matrices;

    (B) multiply matrices;

    (C) multiply matrices by a scalar;

    (D) represent and solve systems of two linear equations arising from mathematical and real-world situations using matrices; and

    (E) represent and solve systems of three linear equations arising from mathematical and real-world situations using matrices and technology.

  (6) Number and algebraic methods. The student applies mathematical processes to estimate and determine solutions to equations resulting from functions and real-world applications with fluency. The student is expected to:

    (A) estimate a reasonable input value that results in a given output value for a given function, including quadratic, rational, and exponential functions;

    (B) solve equations arising from questions asked about functions that model real-world applications, including linear and quadratic functions, tabularly, graphically, and symbolically; and

    (C) approximate solutions to equations arising from questions asked about exponential, logarithmic, square root, and cubic functions that model real-world applications tabularly and graphically.

  (7) Modeling from data. The student applies mathematical processes to analyze and model data based on real-world situations with corresponding functions. The student is expected to:

    (A) represent domain and range of a function using interval notation, inequalities, and set (builder) notation;

    (B) compare and contrast between the mathematical and reasonable domain and range of functions modeling real-world situations, including linear, quadratic, exponential, and rational functions;

    (C) determine the accuracy of a prediction from a function that models a set of data compared to the actual data using comparisons between average rates of change and finite differences such as gathering data from an emptying tank and comparing the average rate of change of the volume or the second differences in the volume to key attributes of the given model;

    (D) determine an appropriate function model, including linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, for a set of data arising from real-world situations using finite differences and average rates of change; and

    (E) determine if a given linear function is a reasonable model for a set of data arising from a real-world situation.


Source Note: The provisions of this §111.48 adopted to be effective May 31, 2015, 40 TexReg 3146

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