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RULE §112.13Science, Grade 2, Adopted 2017

(a) Introduction.

  (1) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these investigations may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.

    (A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, creating a method to answer those questions, answering those questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations used in descriptive investigations.

    (B) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as temperature, shape, and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.

    (C) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.

    (D) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.

  (2) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

  (3) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

  (4) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

  (5) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify, describe, and demonstrate safe practices as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; and

    (B) identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.

  (2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

    (A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;

    (B) plan and conduct descriptive investigations;

    (C) collect data from observations using scientific tools;

    (D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;

    (E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

    (F) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

  (3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify and explain a problem and propose a task and solution for the problem;

    (B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

    (C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

  (4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

    (A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles or chemical splash goggles, as appropriate; timing devices; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

    (B) measure and compare organisms and objects.

  (5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

    (A) classify matter by physical properties, including relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid;

    (B) compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling;

    (C) demonstrate that things can be done to materials such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting to change their physical properties; and

    (D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

  (6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

    (A) investigate the effects on objects by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter;

    (B) observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life; and

    (C) trace and compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning over time.

  (7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

    (A) observe, describe, and compare rocks by size, texture, and color;

    (B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and

    (C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.

  (8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

    (A) measure, record, and graph weather information, including temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, and cloud coverage, in order to identify patterns in the data;

    (B) identify the importance of weather and seasonal information to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation; and

    (C) observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon.

  (9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;

    (B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things; and

    (C) compare the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments such as through food chains.

  (10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

    (A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs;

    (B) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics of plants help them meet their basic needs such as stems carry water throughout the plant; and

    (C) investigate and record some of the unique stages that insects such as grasshoppers and butterflies undergo during their life cycle.

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.13 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 TexReg 5062; amended to be effective August 27, 2018, 42 TexReg 5052

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