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RULE §112.3Science, Grade 1, Adopted 2021

(a) Introduction.

  (1) In Kindergarten through Grade 5 Science, content is organized into recurring strands. The concepts within each grade level build on prior knowledge, prepare students for the next grade level, and establish a foundation in science. In Grade 1, the following concepts will be addressed in each strand.

    (A) Scientific and engineering practices. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world using scientific and engineering practices. Scientific methods of investigation are descriptive, correlative, comparative, or experimental. The method chosen should be appropriate to the grade level and question being asked. Student learning for different types of investigations includes descriptive investigations, which have no hypothesis that tentatively answers the research question and involve collecting data and recording observations without making comparisons; correlative and comparative investigations, which have a hypothesis that predicts a relationship and involve collecting data, measuring variables relevant to the hypothesis that are manipulated, and comparing results; and experimental investigations, which involve processes similar to comparative investigations but in which a hypothesis can be tested by comparing a treatment with a control.

      (i) Scientific practices. Students ask questions, plan and conduct investigations to answer questions, and explain phenomena using appropriate tools and models.

      (ii) Engineering practices. Students identify problems and design solutions using appropriate tools and models.

      (iii) To support instruction in the science content standards, it is recommended that districts integrate scientific and engineering practices through classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

    (B) Matter and its properties. Students build their knowledge of the natural world using their senses. Students focus on observable properties and patterns of objects, including larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, and texture. The students understand changes in materials caused by heating and cooling.

    (C) Force, motion, and energy. Students know that force and motion are related and that energy exists in many forms as a part of everyday life. Magnetism interacts with various materials and can be used as a push and pull. The students investigate the importance of heat and focus on changes caused by heating and cooling.

    (D) Earth and space. Patterns, cycles, and systems are recognizable in the natural world and among objects in the sky. Students make informed choices by understanding weather and seasonal patterns. Students understand that natural resources on Earth, including rocks, soil, and water, are used by humans and can be conserved.

    (E) Organisms and environments. All living organisms interact with living and nonliving things within their environments and use structures to meet their basic needs. Students know that organisms are interdependent and part of a food chain. The students investigate the life cycle of animals and identify likenesses between parents and young.

  (2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not currently scientifically testable.

  (3) Scientific observations, inferences, hypotheses, and theories. Students are expected to know that:

    (A) observations are active acquisition of either qualitative or quantitative information from a primary source through the senses;

    (B) inferences are conclusions reached on the basis of observations or reasoning supported by relevant evidence;

    (C) hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories; and

    (D) scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed.

  (4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world involving its own set of ethical standards about how the process of science should be carried out. Students distinguish between scientific decision-making practices and ethical and social decisions that involve science.

  (5) Recurring themes and concepts. Science consists of recurring themes and making connections between overarching concepts. Recurring themes include structure and function, systems, models, and patterns. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. Models have limitations but provide a tool for understanding the ideas presented. Students analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

  (6) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Scientific and engineering practices. The student asks questions, identifies problems, and plans and safely conducts classroom, laboratory, and field investigations to answer questions, explain phenomena, or design solutions using appropriate tools and models. The student is expected to:

    (A) ask questions and define problems based on observations or information from text, phenomena, models, or investigations;

    (B) use scientific practices to plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations and use engineering practices to design solutions to problems;

    (C) identify, describe, and demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations as outlined in Texas Education Agency-approved safety standards;

    (D) use tools, including hand lenses, goggles, heat-resistant gloves, trays, cups, bowls, beakers, sieves/sifters, tweezers, primary balance, notebooks, terrariums, aquariums, stream tables, soil samples (loam, sand, gravel, rocks, and clay), seeds, plants, windsock, pinwheel, student thermometer, demonstration thermometer, rain gauge, straws, ribbons, non-standard measuring items, flashlights, sandpaper, wax paper, items that are magnetic, non-magnetic items, a variety of magnets, hot plate, aluminum foil, Sun-Moon-Earth model, and plant and animal life cycle models to observe, measure, test, and compare;

    (E) collect observations and measurements as evidence;

    (F) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, words, symbols, and simple graphs; and

    (G) develop and use models to represent phenomena, objects, and processes or design a prototype for a solution to a problem.

  (2) Scientific and engineering practices. The student analyzes and interprets data to derive meaning, identify features and patterns, and discover relationships or correlations to develop evidence-based arguments or evaluate designs. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify basic advantages and limitations of models such as their size, properties, and materials;

    (B) analyze data by identifying significant features and patterns;

    (C) use mathematical concepts to compare two objects with common attributes; and

    (D) evaluate a design or object using criteria to determine if it works as intended.

  (3) Scientific and engineering practices. The student develops evidence-based explanations and communicates findings, conclusions, and proposed solutions. The student is expected to:

    (A) develop explanations and propose solutions supported by data and models;

    (B) communicate explanations and solutions individually and collaboratively in a variety of settings and formats; and

    (C) listen actively to others' explanations to identify important evidence and engage respectfully in scientific discussion.

  (4) Scientific and engineering practices. The student knows the contributions of scientists and recognizes the importance of scientific research and innovation for society. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain how science or an innovation can help others; and


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