(1) In Grade 2, students focus on a study of their
local community by examining the impact of significant individuals
and events on the history of the community as well as on the state
and nation. Students begin to develop the concepts of time and chronology.
The relationship between the physical environment and human activities
is introduced as are the concepts of consumers and producers. Students
identify functions of government as well as services provided by the
local government. Students continue to acquire knowledge of customs,
symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles.
Students identify the significance of works of art in the local community
and explain how technological innovations have changed transportation
and communication. Students communicate what they have learned in
written, oral, and visual forms.
(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge
and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as nonfiction
texts, primary sources, biographies, folklore, poetry, songs, and
artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums,
historical sites, presidential libraries, online tours, and local
and state preservation societies.
(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and
skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional
purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection
(b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all
essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth
of understanding of complex content material can be attained when
integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and
critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain
the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while
those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative
(4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise
system within the parameters of this course and understand that this
system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
(5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade
12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics;
government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society;
and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade
level or course, enables students to understand the importance of
patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate
the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced
in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
(6) Students understand that a constitutional republic
is a representative form of government whose representatives derive
their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established
tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
(7) Students must demonstrate learning performance
related to any federal and state mandates regarding classroom instruction.
Although Grade 2 is not required to participate in Celebrate Freedom
Week, according to the TEC, §29.907, primary grades lay the foundation
for subsequent learning. As a result, Grade 2 Texas essential knowledge
and skills include standards related to this patriotic observance.
(8) Students discuss how and whether the actions of
U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have achieved
the ideals espoused in the founding documents.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) History. The student understands the historical
significance of landmarks and celebrations in the community, state,
and nation. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the significance of various community,
state, and national celebrations such as Veterans Day, Memorial Day,
Independence Day, and Thanksgiving; and
(B) identify and explain the significance of various
community, state, and national landmarks such as monuments and government
(2) History. The student understands how historical
figures helped shape the community, state, and nation. The student
is expected to:
(A) identify contributions of historical figures, including
Thurgood Marshall, Irma Rangel, and Theodore Roosevelt, who have influenced
the state and nation; and
(B) describe how people and events have influenced
local community history.
(3) Geography. The student uses simple geographic tools,
including maps and globes. The student is expected to:
(A) identify and use information on maps and globes
using basic map elements such as title, cardinal directions, and legend;
(B) create maps to show places and routes within the
home, school, and community.
(4) Geography. The student understands the location
of places in their community, state, country, and the world. The student
is expected to:
(A) identify major landforms and bodies of water, including
each of the seven continents and each of the oceans, on maps and globes;
(B) locate places, including the local community, Texas,
the United States, the state capital, the U.S. capital, and the bordering
countries of Canada and Mexico on maps and globes.
(5) Geography. The student understands how humans use
and modify the physical environment. The student is expected to:
(A) identify ways in which people have modified the
physical environment such as clearing land, building roads, using
land for agriculture, and drilling for oil;
(B) identify consequences of human modification of
the physical environment; and
(C) identify ways people can conserve and replenish
(6) Economics. The student understands the value of
work. The student is expected to:
(A) explain how work provides income to purchase goods
and services; and
(B) explain the choices people can make about earning,
spending, and saving money.
(7) Economics. The student understands the roles of
producers and consumers in the production of goods and services. The
student is expected to:
(A) distinguish between producing and consuming;
(B) identify ways in which people are both producers
and consumers; and
(C) trace the development of a product from a natural
resource to a finished product.
(8) Government. The student understands the purpose
of governments. The student is expected to:
(A) identify functions of governments such as establishing
order, providing security, and managing conflict; and
(B) identify governmental services in the community
such as police and fire protection, libraries, schools, and parks
and explain their value to the community.
(9) Government. The student understands the role of
public officials. The student is expected to:
(A) name current public officials, including mayor,
governor, and president;
(B) compare the roles of public officials, including
mayor, governor, and president;
(C) identify ways that public officials are selected,
including election and appointment to office; and
(D) identify how citizens participate in their own
governance through staying informed of what public officials are doing,
providing input to them, and volunteering to participate in government
(10) Citizenship. The student understands characteristics
of good citizenship as exemplified by historical figures and other
individuals. The student is expected to:
(A) identify characteristics of good citizenship, including
truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility
in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself
about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word,
(B) identify historical figures and other individuals
who have exemplified good citizenship such as Paul Revere, Abigail
Adams, World War II Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs), Navajo
Code Talkers, and Sojourner Truth; and
(C) identify ways to actively practice good citizenship,
including involvement in community service.
(11) Citizenship. The student understands important
symbols, customs, and celebrations that represent American beliefs
and principles that contribute to our national identity. The student
is expected to:
(A) recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States
Flag and the Pledge to the Texas Flag;
(B) sing, recite, or identify selected patriotic songs,
including "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful";
(C) identify symbols such as state and national birds
and flowers and Uncle Sam; and
(D) identify how selected symbols, customs, and celebrations
reflect an American love of individualism, inventiveness, and freedom.
(12) Culture. The student understands ethnic and/or
cultural celebrations. The student is expected to:
(A) identify the significance of various ethnic and/or
cultural celebrations; and
(B) compare ethnic and/or cultural celebrations.
(13) Science, technology, and society. The student
understands how science and technology have affected life, past and
present. The student is expected to:
(A) describe how science and technology have affected
communication, transportation, and recreation; and
(B) explain how science and technology have affected
the ways in which people meet basic needs.
(14) Science, technology, and society. The student
identifies individuals who exhibited individualism and inventiveness.
The student is expected to identify individuals who have exhibited
individualism and inventiveness such as Amelia Earhart and George
(15) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking
skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of
valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
(A) gather information about a topic using a variety
of valid oral and visual sources such as interviews, music, pictures,
maps, and artifacts; and
(B) interpret oral, visual, and print material by sequencing,
categorizing, identifying the main idea, predicting, comparing, and
(16) Social studies skills. The student communicates
in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the order of events by using designations
of time periods such as historical and present times;
(B) apply vocabulary related to chronology, including
past, present, and future;
(C) create and interpret timelines for events in the
past and present;
(D) use social studies terminology correctly;
(E) express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences;
(F) create written and visual material such as stories,
maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas.
(17) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving
and decision-making skills, working independently and with others.
The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making
processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider
options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement
a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.