|(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. (b) Introduction. (1) In Psychology, an elective course, students study the science of behavior and mental processes. Students examine the full scope of the science of psychology such as the historical framework, methodologies, human development, motivation, emotion, sensation, perception, personality development, cognition, learning, intelligence, biological foundations, mental health, and social psychology. (2) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (3) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution. (4) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week. (A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the Texas Education Code, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement. (B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed." (5) Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents. (c) Knowledge and skills. (1) History. The student understands the development of the field of psychology. The student is expected to: (A) identify characteristics that differentiate the field of psychology from other related social sciences; (B) trace the historical development of the contemporary perspectives in psychology, including biological, behavioral, cognitive, sociocultural, humanistic, and psychodynamic; and (C) explore subfields and career opportunities available in the science of psychology. (2) Science of psychology. The student differentiates the processes of theory development and validation. The student is expected to: (A) define and differentiate the concepts of theory and principle; (B) identify and describe the basic methods of social scientific reasoning; (C) apply the standards of the American Psychological Association (APA) for ethical decision making regarding the collection, storage, and use of psychological data; and (D) define and interpret measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and dispersion (range and standard deviation). (3) Science of psychology. The student understands the relationship between biology and behavior. The student is expected to: (A) describe the anatomy of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system; and (B) explain the effects of the endocrine and nervous systems on development and behavior. (4) Science of psychology. The student understands how sensations and perceptions influence cognition and behavior. The student is expected to: (A) explain the capabilities and limitations of sensory systems and individual perceptions; and (B) understand the interaction of the individual and the environment in determining sensation and perception. (5) Individual development. The student understands that development is a life-long process. The student is expected to: (A) critique the various perspectives presented in the nature versus nurture debate; (B) trace the influence of physical development on the individual; (C) discuss the role of the caregiver on individual development; (D) explain factors involved in cognitive development according to Jean Piaget; (E) describe Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; (F) evaluate the predicted outcomes of given courses of actions in particular situations based on an understanding of the development of morality; and (G) evaluate the presented theories of human development and specify the strengths and weaknesses of each. (6) Individual development. The student understands behavioral and social learning theories. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate an understanding of the principles of operant and classical conditioning and of social learning; and (B) describe the processes of learning using typical classroom situations. (7) Individual identity. The student understands the principles of motivation and emotion. The student is expected to: (A) compare predominant theories of motivation and emotion; and (B) explore the interaction of biological and cultural factors in emotion and motivation. (8) Individual identity. The student understands the nature of intelligence. The student is expected to differentiate the various types of intelligence. (9) Individual identity. The student understands the basic principles of tests and measurements. The student is expected to: (A) describe statistical concepts used in testing; and (B) differentiate among aptitude, achievement, and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests. (10) Individual identity. The student understands the development and assessment of personality. The student is expected to: (A) define personality; (B) compare and evaluate various theories of personality, including psychodynamic, trait, humanistic, and sociocultural; and (C) describe personality assessment tools. (11) Individual experience. The student understands basic elements of cognition. The student is expected to: (A) define and identify the basic elements of thought; (B) identify strategies and obstacles associated with problem solving and decision making; (C) explore the structural features of language; (D) discuss theories of language acquisition and development; (E) evaluate the limitations and capabilities of the information processing model; and (F) understand the states and levels of consciousness. (12) Individual experience. The student understands the multifaceted aspects of mental health. The student is expected to: (A) explain stress and the individual's physiological, behavioral, and psychological responses to stressors; (B) evaluate cognitive and behavioral strategies for dealing with stress; (C) analyze the challenges inherent in defining abnormal behavior and acknowledge the sociocultural stigma of labeling behavior as abnormal; (D) recognize the biological, social, and cognitive origins of abnormal behavior; (E) discuss major categories of abnormal behaviors and identify their respective characteristics as classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM); and (F) evaluate the effectiveness of past and present methods of therapy. (13) The individual in society. The student will understand the influence of society and culture on behavior and cognition. The student is expected to: (A) describe how attributions affect explanations of behavior; (B) explore the nature and effects of bias and discrimination; (C) describe circumstances in which conformity and obedience are likely to occur; (D) describe the effects of the presence of others on individual behavior; (E) discuss the nature of altruism; (F) discuss the factors influencing attraction; and (G) identify sources of attitude formation and assess methods used to influence attitudes. (14) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to: (A) create a product on a contemporary psychology-related issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry; (B) draw and evaluate conclusions from qualitative information; (C) apply evaluation rules to quantitative information; and (D) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions. (15) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to: (A) use psychology-related terminology correctly; (B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation; (C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and written or visual to statistical, using computer software as appropriate; and (D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information. (16) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to: (A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; (B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision; and (C) participate in conflict resolution using persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation. (17) Social studies skills. The student develops long-term and short-term goal-setting skills for individual and community problem solving. The student is expected to: (A) illustrate the relationship and sequence between intermediate goals and terminal goals; and (B) monitor and evaluate self-directed inquiry or projects for timelines, accuracy, and goal attainment. (18) Science and technology. The student understands the relationship of changes in technology to personal growth and development. The student is expected to: (A) analyze examples of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to changes in available technology; and (B) evaluate the impact of changes in technology on personal growth and development.