(a) General requirements. This course is recommended
for students in Grades 10-12. Prerequisites: Algebra I and Geometry.
This course satisfies a high school mathematics graduation requirement.
Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of
this course.
(b) Introduction.
(1) Career and technical education instruction provides
content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical
knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed
in current or emerging professions.
(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
(STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing
scientific research and professional and technical services, including
laboratory and testing services, and research and development services.
(3) Digital Electronics is the study of electronic
circuits that are used to process and control digital signals. In
contrast to analog electronics, where information is represented by
a continuously varying voltage, digital signals are represented by
two discreet voltages or logic levels. This distinction allows for
greater signal speed and storage capabilities and has revolutionized
the world of electronics. Digital electronics is the foundation of
modern electronic devices such as cellular phones, digital audio players,
laptop computers, digital cameras, and high-definition televisions.
The primary focus of Digital Electronics is to expose students to
the design process of combinational and sequential logic design, teamwork,
communication methods, engineering standards, and technical documentation.
(4) The mathematical process standards describe ways
in which students are expected to engage in the content. The placement
of the process standards at the beginning of the knowledge and skills
listed for each grade and course is intentional. The process standards
weave the other knowledge and skills together so that students may
be successful problem solvers and use mathematics efficiently and
effectively in daily life. The process standards are integrated at
every grade level and course. When possible, students will apply mathematics
to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.
Students will use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing
given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution,
justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process
and the reasonableness of the solution. Students will select appropriate
tools such as real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology
and techniques such as mental math, estimation, and number sense to
solve problems. Students will effectively communicate mathematical
ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations
such as symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language. Students will use
mathematical relationships to generate solutions and make connections
and predictions. Students will analyze mathematical relationships
to connect and communicate mathematical ideas. Students will display,
explain, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise
mathematical language in written or oral communication.
(5) Students are encouraged to participate in extended
learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations
and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.
(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference
content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such
as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) The student demonstrates professional standards/employability
skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected
to:
(A) demonstrate knowledge of how to dress appropriately,
speak politely, and conduct oneself in a manner appropriate for the
profession;
(B) show the ability to cooperate, contribute, and
collaborate as a member of a group in an effort to achieve a positive
collective outcome;
(C) present written and oral communication in a clear,
concise, and effective manner, including explaining and justifying
actions;
(D) demonstrate time-management skills in prioritizing
tasks, following schedules, and performing goal-relevant activities
in a way that produces efficient results; and
(E) demonstrate punctuality, dependability, reliability,
and responsibility in performing assigned tasks as directed.
(2) The student uses mathematical processes to acquire
and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected
to:
(A) apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday
life, society, and the workplace;
(B) use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing
given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution,
justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process
and the reasonableness of the solution;
(C) select tools, including real objects, manipulatives,
paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including
mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve
problems;
(D) communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and
their implications using multiple representations, including symbols,
diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate;
(E) create and use representations to organize, record,
and communicate mathematical ideas;
(F) analyze mathematical relationships to connect and
communicate mathematical ideas; and
(G) display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas
and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral
communication.
(3) The student demonstrates the skills necessary for
success in a technical career. The student is expected to:
(A) distinguish the differences between an engineering
technician, engineering technologist, and engineer;
(B) identify employment and career opportunities;
(C) identify industry certifications;
(D) discuss ethical issues related to engineering and
technology and incorporate proper ethics in submitted projects;
(E) identify and demonstrate respect for diversity
in the workplace;
(F) identify and demonstrate appropriate actions and
identify consequences relating to discrimination, harassment, and
inequality;
(G) explore electronics engineering careers and preparation
programs;
(H) explore career preparation learning experiences,
including job shadowing, mentoring, and apprenticeship training; and
(I) discuss *Accreditation
Board for Engineering and Technology * (ABET) accreditation and
implications.
(4) The student participates in team projects in various
roles. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the importance of teamwork in the field
of electronics;
(B) apply principles of effective problem solving in
teams to practice collaboration and conflict resolution; and
(C) demonstrate proper attitudes as a team leader and
team member.
(5) The student develops skills for managing a project.
The student is expected to:
(A) implement project management methodologies, including
initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
a project;
(B) develop a project schedule and complete work according
to established criteria;
(C) participate in the organization and operation of
a real or simulated engineering project; and
(D) develop a plan for production of an individual
product.
(6) The student practices safe and proper work habits.
The student is expected to:
(A) master relevant safety tests;
(B) comply with safety guidelines as described in various
manuals, instructions, and regulations;
(C) identify governmental and organizational regulations
for health and safety in the workplace related to electronics;
(D) identify and classify hazardous materials and wastes
according to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
regulations;
(E) dispose of hazardous materials and wastes appropriately;
(F) perform maintenance on selected tools, equipment,
and machines;
(G) handle and store tools and materials correctly;
and
(H) describe the results of improper maintenance of
material, tools, and equipment.
(7) The student explores the fundamentals of analog
and digital electronics. The student uses appropriate notation and
understands the logic of circuit design and logic gates. The student
is expected to:
(A) use scientific notation, engineering notation,
and Systems International (SI) notation to conveniently write very
large or very small numbers frequently encountered when working with
electronics;
(B) describe the process of soldering and how it is
used in the assembly of electronic components;
(C) explain the different waveforms and distinctive
characteristics of analog and digital signals;
(D) identify the voltage levels of analog and digital
signals;
(E) determine whether a material is a conductor, an
insulator, or a semiconductor based on its atomic structure;
(F) analyze the three fundamental concepts of voltage,
current, and resistance;
(G) define circuit design software and explain its
purpose;
(H) identify the fundamental building block of sequential
logic;
(I) identify the components of a manufacturer's datasheet,
including a logic gate's general description, connection diagram,
and function table;
(J) categorize integrated circuits by their underlying
circuitry, scale of integration, and packaging style;
(K) describe the advantages and disadvantages of the
various sub-families of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) gates;
(L) explain that a logic gate is depicted by its schematic
symbol, logic expression, and truth table;
(M) evaluate the different functions of input and output
values of combinational and sequential logic;
(N) explain combinational logic designs implemented
with AND gates, OR gates, and INVERTER gates; and
(O) identify the fundamental building block of sequential
logic.
(8) The student understands and uses multiple forms
of AND-OR-Invert (AOI) logic. The student is expected to:
(A) develop an understanding of the binary number system
and its relationship to the decimal number system as an essential
component in the combinational logic design process;
(B) translate a set of design specifications into a
truth table to describe the behavior of a combinational logic design
by listing all possible input combinations and the desired output
for each;
(C) derive logic expressions from a given truth table;
(D) demonstrate logic expressions in sum-of-products
(SOP) form and products-of-sum (POS) form;
(E) explain how all logic expressions, whether simplified
or not, can be implemented using AND gates and INVERTER gates or OR
gates and INVERTER gates; and
(F) apply a formal design process to translate a set
of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit.
(9) The student understands, explains, and applies
NAND and NOR Logic and understands the benefits of using universal
gates. The student is expected to:
(A) apply the Karnaugh Mapping graphical technique
to simplify logic expressions containing two, three, and four variables;
(B) define a "don't care" condition and explain its
significance;
(C) explain why NAND and NOR gates are considered universal
gates;
(D) demonstrate implementation of a combinational logic
expression using only NAND gates or only NOR gates;
(E) discuss the formal design process used for translating
a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic
circuit implemented with NAND or NOR gates; and
(F) explain why combinational logic designs implemented
with NAND gates or NOR gates will typically require fewer integrated
circuits (IC) than AOI equivalent implementations.
(10) The student understands combinational logic systems,
including seven-segment displays, Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates,
and multiplexer/de-multiplexer pairs. The student understands the
relative value of various logic approaches. The student is expected
to:
(A) use seven-segment displays used to display the
digits 0-9 as well as some alpha characters;
(B) identify the two varieties of seven-segment displays;
(C) describe the formal design process used for translating
a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic
circuit;
(D) develop an understanding of the hexadecimal and
octal number systems and their relationships to the decimal number
system;
(E) explain the primary intended purpose of Exclusive
OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) gates;
(F) describe how to accomplish the addition of two
binary numbers of any bit length;
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