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RULE §127.756Biotechnology I (One Credit), Adopted 2015

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. Prerequisite: Biology. Recommended prerequisites: Principles of Biosciences and Chemistry. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement. This course satisfies a high school science graduation requirement. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

  (2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services, including laboratory and testing services, and research and development services.

  (3) In Biotechnology I, students will apply advanced academic knowledge and skills to the emerging fields of biotechnology such as agricultural, medical, regulatory, and forensics. Students will have the opportunity to use sophisticated laboratory equipment, perform statistical analysis, and practice quality-control techniques. Students will conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Biotechnology I will study a variety of topics that include structures and functions of cells, nucleic acids, proteins, and genetics.

  (4) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

  (5) Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

  (6) Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (science methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

  (7) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

  (8) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

  (9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate knowledge of how to dress appropriately, speak politely, and conduct oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession;

    (B) show the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a group in an effort to achieve a positive collective outcome;

    (C) present written and oral communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner;

    (D) demonstrate time-management skills in prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and performing goal-relevant activities in a way that produces efficient results; and

    (E) demonstrate punctuality, dependability, reliability, and responsibility in performing assigned tasks as directed.

  (2) The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety, and safe handling of live and preserved organisms;

    (B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials;

    (C) demonstrate appropriate safety procedures, guidelines, and chemical hygiene plan;

    (D) maintain required safety training, including location and understanding of interpretation of safety data sheets;

    (E) comply with federal and state safety regulations as specified by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and other regulatory agencies as appropriate;

    (F) identify and obey safety symbols and signs;

    (G) maintain clean and well organized work areas;

    (H) dispose of equipment, glassware, and biologics according to laboratory policies;

    (I) recognize common laboratory hazards;

    (J) observe procedures for the safe use of instruments, gas cylinders, and chemicals; and

    (K) maintain safety and personal protection equipment.

  (3) The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

    (A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section;

    (B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

    (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

    (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

    (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology;

    (F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;

    (G) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures;

    (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

    (I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and

    (J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

  (4) The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

    (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking;

    (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

    (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

    (D) evaluate the impact of research and technology on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

    (E) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events;

    (F) describe the connection between biotechnology and future careers; and

    (G) research and describe the history of biotechnology and contributions of scientists.

  (5) The student explores the emerging field of biotechnology. The student is expected to:

    (A) define biotechnology and provide examples of biotechnology products such as recombinant proteins, fermented foods, biopharmaceuticals, and genetically modified foods;

    (B) apply scientific processes and concepts outlined in the Texas essential knowledge and skills (TEKS) for Biology relevant to biotechnology, including all types of cells; cellular structures and functions; and viruses;

    (C) explore applications of bioinformatics such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding, phylogenetic relationships, and the use of online databases;

    (D) research career opportunities in fields such as molecular, forensic, medical, regulatory, and agricultural biotechnology;

    (E) research the history of biotechnology and contributions of scientists;

    (F) define bioethics and research applications of bioethics;

    (G) research applications in agricultural biotechnology such as tissue culturing, genetically modified foods, plant propagation, and hydroponics; and

    (H) research applications in medical biotechnology such as vaccines, stem cells, microarrays, and pharmaceutical production.

  (6) The student summarizes biotechnology laboratory procedures and their applications in the biotechnology industry. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify the major sectors of the biotechnology industry;

    (B) categorize the biotechnology laboratory procedures included in each sector; and

    (C) compare the different applications used in biotechnology laboratory procedures of each sector.

  (7) The student understands the role of genetics in the biotechnology industry. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain terms related to molecular biology including nucleic acids, nitrogen bases, amino acids, transcription, translation, polymerase, and protein synthesis;

    (B) describe the structure and function of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in cells and viruses;

    (C) compare and contrast the nitrogen bases of DNA and RNA;

    (D) explain how nucleotides join together to form a DNA double helix;

    (E) describe the DNA replication process in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells;

    (F) illustrate the process of protein synthesis; and

    (G) describe the structure and function of proteins, including 3D folding, enzymes, and antibodies.

  (8) The student analyzes the importance of recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe the fundamental steps in recombinant DNA technology;

    (B) explain how recombinant DNA technology is used to clone genes and create recombinant proteins;

    (C) explain the role of tissue cultures to genetic modification procedures;

    (D) describe plant- and animal-tissue culture procedures;

    (E) compare and contrast proper growing conditions for plant and animal tissue cultures;

    (F) explain the role of restriction enzymes;

    (G) distinguish among vectors commonly used in biotechnology for DNA insertion, including plasmids, retroviruses, and bacteriophages; and

    (H) explain the steps and components of the polymerase chain reaction.

  (9) The student examines federal, state, local, and industry regulations as related to biotechnology. The student is expected to:

    (A) discuss the relationship between the local, state, and federal agencies responsible for regulation of the biotechnology industry; and

    (B) analyze policies and procedures used in the biotechnology industry such as quality assurance, standard operating procedures (SOPs), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality systems.

  (10) The student performs standard biotechnology laboratory procedures. The student is expected to:


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