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TITLE 19EDUCATION
PART 2TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY
CHAPTER 128TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SPANISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
SUBCHAPTER CHIGH SCHOOL
RULE §128.34English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

  (1) The essential knowledge and skills for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

  (2) ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

  (2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

  (3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

  (4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

  (5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

  (6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

  (7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

    (B) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

    (C) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

    (D) give a presentation using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and increasing mastery of conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

    (E) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making;

    (F) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

    (G) conduct an interview, including social and informative.

  (2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) acquire, demonstrate, and apply phonetic knowledge; and

    (B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

  (3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

    (B) discuss and analyze context and use cognates to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and phrases;

    (C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as bona fide, caveat, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, bon appétit, and quid pro quo;

    (D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

    (E) identify, understand, and use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

    (F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

  (4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level and language proficiency-level text based on the reading purpose.

  (5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade- and language proficiency-appropriate texts with increasing independence. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

  (6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and comprehend increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

    (B) answer and generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to acquire and deepen understanding and gain information;

    (C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

    (D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

    (E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

    (F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

    (G) actively participate in discussions to identify, understand, and evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

    (H) synthesize information from two texts to create new understanding; and

    (I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

  (7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

    (B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

    (C) use text evidence and original commentary to support a comprehensive response;

    (D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

    (E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as labeling, notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

    (F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

    (G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

    (H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

    (I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants;

    (J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

    (K) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

  (8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

    (A) identify and analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot in a variety of literary texts;

    (B) identify and analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

    (C) identify and analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

Cont'd...

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