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TITLE 19EDUCATION
PART 2TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY
CHAPTER 130TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION
SUBCHAPTER HHEALTH SCIENCE
RULE §130.227Pathophysiology (One Credit), Adopted 2015

(a) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Recommended prerequisite: a course from the Health Science Career Cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork. This course satisfies a high school science graduation requirement. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

  (2) The Health Science Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing therapeutic services, diagnostic services, health informatics, support services, and biotechnology research and development.

  (3) The Pathophysiology course is designed for students to conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Pathophysiology will study disease processes and how humans are affected. Emphasis is placed on prevention and treatment of disease. Students will differentiate between normal and abnormal physiology.

  (4) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

  (5) Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

  (6) Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

  (7) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

  (8) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

  (9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication in a clear, concise, and effective manner; and

    (B) exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and collaborate as a member of a team.

  (2) The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

    (B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

  (3) The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

    (A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section;

    (B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

    (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies emerge;

    (D) distinguish and differentiate between scientific hypothesis and scientific theories;

    (E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

    (F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

    (G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

    (H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

  (4) The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

    (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking;

    (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

    (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

    (D) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

    (E) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

    (F) research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

  (5) The student analyzes the mechanisms of pathology. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify biological and chemical processes at the cellular level;

    (B) detect changes resulting from mutations and neoplasms by examining cells, tissues, organs, and systems;

    (C) identify factors that contribute to disease such as age, gender, environment, lifestyle, and heredity;

    (D) examine the body's compensating mechanisms occurring under various conditions; and

    (E) analyze how the body attempts to maintain homeostasis when changes occur.

  (6) The student examines the process of pathogenesis. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify pathogenic organisms using microbiological techniques;

    (B) differentiate the stages of pathogenesis, including incubation period, prodromal period, and exacerbation or remission;

    (C) analyze the body's natural defense systems against infection such as barriers, the inflammatory response, and the immune response;

    (D) evaluate the effects of chemical agents, environmental pollution, and trauma on the disease process; and

    (E) research stages in the progression of disease.

  (7) The student examines a variety of human diseases. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe the nature of diseases, including the etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options for diseases;

    (B) explore advanced technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of disease;

    (C) examine reemergence of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and polio;

    (D) differentiate between hospital-acquired infections and community-acquired infections;

    (E) examine antibiotic-resistant diseases such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus;

    (F) differentiate between congenital disorders and childhood diseases; and

    (G) investigate ways diseases affect multiple body systems.

  (8) The student integrates the effects of disease prevention and control. The student is expected to:

    (A) evaluate public health issues related to asepsis, isolation, immunization, and quarantine;

    (B) analyze the effects of stress and aging on the body;

    (C) evaluate treatment options for diseases;

    (D) investigate diseases that threaten world health and propose intervention strategies; and

    (E) develop a plan for personal health and wellness.


Source Note: The provisions of this §130.227 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123

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