|(a) General requirements. This course is recommended
for students in Grades 11 and 12. Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry.
Recommended prerequisite: a course from the Health Science Career
Cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork. This
course satisfies a high school science graduation requirement. Students
shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.
(1) Career and technical education instruction provides
content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical
knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed
in current or emerging professions.
(2) The Health Science Career Cluster focuses on planning,
managing, and providing therapeutic services, diagnostic services,
health informatics, support services, and biotechnology research and
(3) The Pathophysiology course is designed for students
to conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods
during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical
thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Pathophysiology
will study disease processes and how humans are affected. Emphasis
is placed on prevention and treatment of disease. Students will differentiate
between normal and abnormal physiology.
(4) Science, as defined by the National Academy of
Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations
and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated
through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge
is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students
should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because
they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.
(5) Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate
investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation
are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should
be appropriate to the question being asked.
(6) Scientific decision making is a way of answering
questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish
between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and
ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application
of scientific information).
(7) A system is a collection of cycles, structures,
and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that
can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy
occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled.
These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically
tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components
and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to
the external environment.
(8) Students are encouraged to participate in extended
learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations
and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.
(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference
content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such
as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) The student demonstrates professional standards/employability
skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected
(A) demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication
in a clear, concise, and effective manner; and
(B) exhibit the ability to cooperate, contribute, and
collaborate as a member of a team.
(2) The student, for at least 40% of instructional
time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally
appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve
actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but
may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well
as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student
is expected to:
(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and
field investigations; and
(B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation
of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.
(3) The student uses scientific methods and equipment
during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected
(A) know the definition of science and understand that
it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(4) of this section;
(B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable
statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported
by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power
that have been tested over a variety of conditions are incorporated
(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural
and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple
independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are
well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be
subject to change as new areas of science are created and new technologies
(D) distinguish and differentiate between scientific
hypothesis and scientific theories;
(E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and
experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating
testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;
(F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative
data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools
such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes,
computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared
slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis
apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot
plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab
incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams,
or samples of biological specimens or structures;
(G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict
trends from data; and
(H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the
data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic
organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based
(4) The student uses critical thinking, scientific
reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and
outside the classroom. The student is expected to:
(A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and
critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical
reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining
all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations,
so as to encourage critical thinking;
(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted
from various sources such as accredited scientific journals, institutions
of higher learning, current events, news reports, published journal
articles, and marketing materials;
(C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional
materials for products and services;
(D) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society
and the environment;
(E) evaluate models according to their limitations
in representing biological objects or events; and
(F) research and describe the history of science and
contributions of scientists.
(5) The student analyzes the mechanisms of pathology.
The student is expected to:
(A) identify biological and chemical processes at the
(B) detect changes resulting from mutations and neoplasms
by examining cells, tissues, organs, and systems;
(C) identify factors that contribute to disease such
as age, gender, environment, lifestyle, and heredity;
(D) examine the body's compensating mechanisms occurring
under various conditions; and
(E) analyze how the body attempts to maintain homeostasis
when changes occur.
(6) The student examines the process of pathogenesis.
The student is expected to:
(A) identify pathogenic organisms using microbiological
(B) differentiate the stages of pathogenesis, including
incubation period, prodromal period, and exacerbation or remission;
(C) analyze the body's natural defense systems against
infection such as barriers, the inflammatory response, and the immune
(D) evaluate the effects of chemical agents, environmental
pollution, and trauma on the disease process; and
(E) research stages in the progression of disease.
(7) The student examines a variety of human diseases.
The student is expected to:
(A) describe the nature of diseases, including the
etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment
options for diseases;
(B) explore advanced technologies for the diagnosis
and treatment of disease;
(C) examine reemergence of diseases such as malaria,
tuberculosis, and polio;
(D) differentiate between hospital-acquired infections
and community-acquired infections;
(E) examine antibiotic-resistant diseases such as methicillin
resistant Staphylococcus aureus;
(F) differentiate between congenital disorders and
childhood diseases; and
(G) investigate ways diseases affect multiple body
(8) The student integrates the effects of disease prevention
and control. The student is expected to:
(A) evaluate public health issues related to asepsis,
isolation, immunization, and quarantine;
(B) analyze the effects of stress and aging on the
(C) evaluate treatment options for diseases;
(D) investigate diseases that threaten world health
and propose intervention strategies; and
(E) develop a plan for personal health and wellness.