(a) General requirements. This course is recommended
for students in Grades 10-12. Prerequisite: Algebra I. Recommended
prerequisite: one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food,
and Natural Resources Career Cluster. This course satisfies a high
school mathematics graduation requirement. Students shall be awarded
one credit for successful completion of this course.
(b) Introduction.
(1) Career and technical education instruction provides
content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical
knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed
in current or emerging professions.
(2) The Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Career
Cluster focuses on the production, processing, marketing, distribution,
financing, and development of agricultural commodities and resources,
including food, fiber, wood products, natural resources, horticulture,
and other plant and animal products/resources.
(3) In Mathematical Applications in Agriculture, Food,
and Natural Resources, students will apply knowledge and skills related
to mathematics, including algebra, geometry, and data analysis in
the context of agriculture, food, and natural resources. To prepare
for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students
must acquire technical knowledge in the discipline as well as apply
academic skills in mathematics. To prepare for success, students need
opportunities to reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and
skills related to mathematics in a variety of contexts.
(4) The mathematical process standards describe ways
in which students are expected to engage in the content. The placement
of the process standards at the beginning of the knowledge and skills
listed for each grade and course is intentional. The process standards
weave the other knowledge and skills together so that students may
be successful problem solvers and use mathematics efficiently and
effectively in daily life. The process standards are integrated at
every grade level and course. When possible, students will apply mathematics
to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.
Students will use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing
given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution,
justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process
and the reasonableness of the solution. Students will select appropriate
tools such as real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology
and techniques such as mental math, estimation, and number sense to
solve problems. Students will effectively communicate mathematical
ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations
such as symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language. Students will use
mathematical relationships to generate solutions and make connections
and predictions. Students will analyze mathematical relationships
to connect and communicate mathematical ideas. Students will display,
explain, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise
mathematical language in written or oral communication.
(5) Students are encouraged to participate in extended
learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations
and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.
(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference
content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such
as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) The student demonstrates professional standards/employability
skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected
to:
(A) identify career development and entrepreneurship
opportunities;
(B) demonstrate competencies related to resources,
information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation;
(C) demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational
health and safety practices in the workplace;
(D) identify employers' expectations, including appropriate
work habits, ethical conduct, and legal responsibilities;
(E) demonstrate characteristics of good citizenship
such as stewardship, advocacy, and community leadership; and
(F) research career topics using technology such as
the Internet.
(2) The student uses mathematical processes to acquire
and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected
to:
(A) apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday
life, society, and the workplace;
(B) use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing
given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution,
justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process
and the reasonableness of the solution;
(C) select tools, including real objects, manipulatives,
paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including
mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve
problems;
(D) communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and
their implications using multiple representations, including symbols,
diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate;
(E) create and use representations to organize, record,
and communicate mathematical ideas;
(F) analyze mathematical relationships to connect and
communicate mathematical ideas; and
(G) display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas
and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral
communication.
(3) The student develops a supervised agriculture experience
program. The student is expected to:
(A) plan, propose, conduct, document, and evaluate
a supervised agriculture experience program as an experiential learning
activity;
(B) apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate
to the supervised agriculture experience;
(C) participate in youth leadership opportunities to
create a well-rounded experience program; and
(D) produce and participate in a local program of activities
using a strategic planning process.
(4) The student performs mathematical calculations
used in agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected
to:
(A) add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers,
fractions, and decimals in calculations related to agriculture, food,
and natural resources;
(B) apply mathematical skills such as measurement,
conversion, and data analysis needed for agriculture, food, and natural
resources;
(C) find solutions to problems related to agriculture,
food, and natural resources by calculating percentages and averages;
(D) convert between English and metric units;
(E) use scientific calculations to determine weight,
volume, and linear measurements;
(F) solve word problems using ratios and dimensional
analysis; and
(G) interpret data using tables, charts, and graphs.
(5) The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge
and skills required to solve problems related to the agriculture,
food, and natural resources industries. The student is expected to:
(A) demonstrate use of relational expressions such
as equal to, not equal, greater than, and less than in agriculture,
food, and natural resources industries such as agribusiness; animal;
environmental service; food products and processing; natural resources;
plant; and power, structural, and technical systems;
(B) apply statistical and data analysis to solve problems
related to agriculture, food, and natural resources industries such
as agribusiness; animal; environmental service; food products and
processing; natural resources; plant; and power, structural, and technical
systems;
(C) analyze mathematical problem statements for missing
or irrelevant data essential to agriculture, food, and natural resources
industries such as agribusiness; animal; environmental service; food
products and processing; natural resources; plant; and power, structural,
and technical systems;
(D) construct and analyze charts, tables, and graphs
from functions and data generated in agriculture, food, and natural
resources industries such as agribusiness; animal; environmental service;
food products and processing; natural resources; plant; and power,
structural, and technical systems;
(E) analyze data using measures of central tendency
when interpreting operational documents in agriculture, food, and
natural resources industries such as agribusiness; animal; environmental
service; food products and processing; natural resources; plant; and
power, structural, and technical systems; and
(F) use mathematical operations and knowledge of relationships
to solve problems such as the calculation of gallons of water from
inches of rain, acres of ground water, liquid and gaseous volumes,
and conversion of units; calculation of caloric value, parts per million
of restricted ingredients, conversion of measurements, and U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA) grades; estimation of wildlife populations and
pulpwood yields; and calculation of mapping data inherent to systems
of agriculture or agribusiness.
(6) The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge
and skills required to solve problems related to agribusiness systems
and related career opportunities. The student is expected to:
(A) use mathematical operations and knowledge of relationships
to solve daily problems related to record keeping such as profit/loss
statements, income statements, capital asset inventories, insurance,
risk management, lease agreements, employee payroll and benefits,
and investments and loan, real estate contract, or tax documentation
in agribusiness systems;
(B) demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications
and linear and exponential functions related to concepts such as simple
interest, compound interest, maturity value, tax rates, depreciation,
production analysis, market trends, investments, and price determination
in agribusiness systems;
(C) use statistical and data analysis, including counts,
percentages, central tendency, and prediction, to evaluate agribusiness
systems data such as demographic, production, consumption, weather,
and market data; and
(D) report statistical data related to concepts such
as pricing, market trends, commodity prices, exports and imports,
supply and demand, and production yields numerically or graphically.
(7) The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge
and skills required to solve problems related to animal systems and
related career opportunities. The student is expected to:
(A) use mathematical operations and knowledge of relationships
to solve problems such as the calculation of purchasing, marketing,
and production costs; housing requirements; conversion of units; average
daily gain; topical and injectable medication dosages; USDA grades;
feeding schedules; volumes; stocking rates; and breeding and gestation
cycles related to animal systems;
(B) demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications
related to animal system calculations such as ration formulation using
the Pearson Square, percent homozygosity, heritability, USDA grades,
gene frequency, cost per unit of nutrient, and weaning weight ratio;
(C) use geometric principles to solve problems such
as the use of right triangles for perpendicular cross fencing and
the calculation of square footage for housing requirements; acreage
for normal and irregular shaped pastures; feed bin volume based upon
shape such as cylinder, cone, cube, or pyramid; and housing volume
for ventilation related to animal systems; and
(D) use statistical and data analysis to evaluate animal
systems data reported numerically or graphically such as birth weight,
weaning weight, days to market weight, expected progeny differences,
feed efficiencies, birth type, litter size, presence or absence of
genetic abnormality, milk production, sow productivity index, and
veterinary costs or records.
(8) The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge
and skills required to solve problems related to environmental service
systems and related career opportunities. The student is expected
to:
(A) demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications
to create solutions to problems such as the calculation of acre feet
of water, water volume in ponds, water well volume, water pressure
friction loss, flow rate, total head pressure, pump efficiency, soil
solids volume, and soil degree of saturation related to environmental
service systems;
(B) use geometric principles to solve problems such
as calculating acreage for normal and irregular shaped pastures and
slope of land, planning runoff drainage structures, and applying differential
leveling techniques related to environmental service systems; and
(C) use statistical and data analysis to evaluate environmental
service systems data reported numerically or graphically such as rainfall,
soil classifications, groundwater levels, recycling activities, and
pollution rates.
(9) The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge
and skills required to solve problems related to food products and
processing systems and related career opportunities. The student is
expected to:
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