(1) The requirements in this section establish radiation
safety requirements and licensing and registration procedures for
using sources of radiation for industrial radiography and for certification
of industrial radiographers.
(2) The requirements in this section apply to licensees
and registrants who possess sources of radiation for industrial radiography,
including radiation machines, accelerators, and sealed radioactive
(3) Each licensee and registrant is responsible for
ensuring compliance with this chapter, license and registration conditions,
and orders of the agency.
(4) Each licensee and registrant is responsible for
ensuring that radiographic personnel performing activities under a
license or registration comply with this chapter, license and registration
conditions, and orders of the agency.
(1) The requirements of this section are in addition
to and not in substitution for other applicable requirements of this
(2) The requirements of the following sections of this
chapter apply to all licensed industrial radiographic operations:
(A) §289.201 of this title (relating to General
Provisions for Radioactive Material);
(B) §289.202 of this title (relating to Standards
for Protection Against Radiation from Radioactive Materials);
(C) §289.203 of this title (relating to Notices,
Instructions, and Reports to Workers; Inspections);
(D) §289.204 of this title (relating to Fees for
Certificates of Registration, Radioactive Material Licenses, Emergency
Planning and Implementation, and Other Regulatory Services);
(E) §289.205 of this title (relating to Hearing
and Enforcement Procedures);
(F) §289.251 of this title (relating to Exemptions,
General Licenses, and General License Acknowledgements);
(G) §289.252 of this title (relating to Licensing
of Radioactive Material); and
(H) §289.257 of this title (relating to Packaging
and Transportation of Radioactive Material).
(3) The requirements of the following sections of this
chapter apply to all registered industrial radiographic operations:
(A) §289.203 of this title;
(B) §289.204 of this title;
(C) §289.205 of this title;
(D) §289.226 of this title (relating to Registration
of Radiation Machine Use and Services); and
(E) §289.231 of this title (relating to General
Provisions and Standards for Protection Against Machine-Produced Radiation).
(4) The requirements of §289.228 of this title
(relating to Radiation Safety Requirements for Industrial Radiation
Machines) apply to persons using analytical and other industrial radiation
machines subject to this section.
(5) The requirements of §289.229 of this title
(relating to Radiation Safety Requirements for Accelerators, Therapeutic
Radiation Machines, Simulators and Electronic Brachytherapy Devices)
apply to persons using accelerators subject to this section.
(c) Definitions. The following words and terms, when
used in this section, shall have the following meaning, unless the
context clearly indicates otherwise.
(1) Additional authorized use/storage site--Authorized
use/storage locations specifically named on a license or certificate
of registration other than the main site specified on a license or
certificate of registration or other than temporary job sites.
(2) ANSI--American National Standards Institute.
(3) Annual refresher safety training--A review conducted
or provided by the licensee or registrant for its employees on radiation
safety aspects of industrial radiography. The review may include,
as appropriate, the results of internal audits, new procedures or
equipment, new or revised regulations, accidents or errors that have
been observed, and should also provide opportunities for employees
to ask safety questions.
(4) Associated equipment--Equipment that is used in
conjunction with a radiographic exposure device to make radiographic
exposures that drives, guides, or comes in contact with the source,
(such as, guide tube, control tube, control cable (drive cable), removable
source stop, "J" tube and collimator when it is used as an exposure
(5) Cabinet x-ray system--An x-ray system with the
x-ray tube installed in an enclosure independent of existing architectural
structures except the floor on which it may be placed. An x-ray tube
used within a shielded part of a building, or x-ray equipment that
may temporarily or occasionally incorporate portable shielding, is
not considered a cabinet x-ray system. The cabinet x-ray system is
(A) contain at least that portion of a material being
(B) provide radiation attenuation; and
(C) exclude personnel from its interior during generation
(6) Certifiable cabinet x-ray system--An existing uncertified
x-ray system that has been modified to meet the certification requirements
specified in Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), §1020.40.
(7) Certification identification (ID) card--The document
issued by the agency to individuals who have completed the requirements
stated in subsection (e)(2)(A) of this section.
(8) Certified cabinet x-ray system--An x-ray system
that has been certified in accordance with Title 21, CFR, §1010.2
as being manufactured and assembled on or after April 10, 1975, according
to the provisions of Title 21, CFR, §1020.40.
(9) Certifying entity--An entity that is:
(A) an independent certifying organization;
(B) an Agreement State whose industrial radiographer
certification program meets the applicable parts of Title 10, CFR,
Part 34, Appendix A, Parts II and III for radioactive material; or
(C) a radiation control agency whose x-ray and/or combination
certification requirements are found to be equivalent to criteria
established by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directions,
(10) Collimator--A radiation shield that is placed
on the end of a guide tube or directly onto a radiographic exposure
device to restrict the size of the radiation beam when the sealed
source is cranked into position to make a radiographic exposure.
(11) Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors,
Inc. (CRCPD)--A 501(c)(3) nonprofit non-governmental professional
organization dedicated to radiation protection to serve as a common
forum for the many governmental radiation protection agencies to communicate
with each other and to promote uniform radiation protection regulations
(12) Control cable (drive cable)--The cable that is
connected to the source assembly and used to drive the source from
and return it to the shielded position.
(13) Control mechanism (drive mechanism)--A device
that enables the source assembly to be moved from and returned to
the shielded position. A drive mechanism is also known as a crank
(14) Control tube--A protective sheath for guiding
the control cable. The control tube connects the control drive mechanism
to the radiographic exposure device.
(15) Crank-out device--The control cable, control tube,
and drive mechanism used to move the sealed source to and from the
shielded position to make an industrial radiographic exposure.
(16) Exposure head--A device that locates the gamma
radiography sealed source in the selected working position. An exposure
head is also known as a source stop.
(17) Fluoroscopic imaging assembly--A subsystem in
which x-ray photons produce a fluoroscopic image. It includes the
image receptors such as the image intensifier and spot-film device,
electrical interlocks, if any, and structural material providing linkage
between the image receptor and source assembly.
(18) GED--General educational development.
(19) Guide tube--A flexible or rigid tube, such as
a "J" tube, for guiding the source assembly and the attached control
cable from the exposure device to the exposure head. The guide tube
may also include the connections necessary for attachment to the exposure
device and to the exposure head.
(20) Independent certifying organization--An independent
organization that meets all of the criteria of Title 10, CFR, Part
34, Appendix A, for radioactive material, or comparable standards
for x-ray machines.
(21) Industrial radiography (radiography)--A nondestructive
testing method using ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays or x rays,
to make radiographic images for the purpose of detecting flaws in
objects without destroying them.
(22) Lay-barge radiography--Industrial radiography
performed on any water vessel used for laying pipe.
(23) Lock-out survey--A radiation survey performed
to determine that a sealed source is in its fully shielded position
before moving the radiographic exposure device or source changer to
a different temporary job site or before securing the radiographic
exposure device or source changer against unauthorized removal.
(24) Offshore--Within the territorial waters of the
State of Texas. The territorial waters of Texas extend to the three
marine league line or nine nautical miles from the Texas coast.
(25) On-the-job training (hands-on experience)--Experience
in all of the areas considered to be directly involved in the radiography
process. The hours of on-the-job training do not include safety meetings,
classroom training, travel, darkroom activities, film development
and interpretation, or use of a cabinet x-ray unit.
(26) Permanent radiographic installation--A shielded
room, cell, or vault, not located at a temporary jobsite, in which
radiography is performed and meets the criteria of subsection (n)
of this section.
(27) Permanent storage site--Any location that is specifically
named on a license or certificate of registration and that is used
only for storage of sources of radiation.
(28) Personal supervision--Guidance and instruction
provided to a radiographer trainee by a radiographer trainer who is
present at the site, in visual contact with the trainee while the
trainee is using sources of radiation, associated equipment, and survey
meters, and in such proximity that immediate assistance can be given
(29) Pipeliners--A directional beam radiographic exposure
(30) Platform radiography--Industrial radiography performed
on an offshore platform or other structure over a body of water.
(31) Practical examination--A demonstration through
practical application of the safety rules and principles in industrial
radiography including use of all appropriate equipment and procedures.
(32) Radiation safety officer (RSO)--An individual
named by the licensee or registrant who has a knowledge of, responsibility
for, and authority to enforce appropriate radiation protection rules,
standards, and practices on behalf of the licensee or registrant and
who meets the requirements of subsection (e)(4) of this section.
(33) Radiographer--Any individual who has successfully
completed the training, testing, and documentation requirements of
subsection (e)(2)(A) of this section and who is responsible to the
licensee or registrant for assuring compliance with the requirements
of the agency's regulations and conditions of the license or certificate
of registration. These individuals may be referred to as certified
industrial radiographers or certified radiographers. The individual
(A) perform industrial radiographic operations; or
(B) be in attendance at the site where the sources
of radiation are being used.
(34) Radiographer certification--Written approval received
from a certifying entity stating that an individual has satisfactorily
met certain established radiation safety, testing, and experience
(35) Radiographer trainee--Any individual who has successfully
completed the training and documentation requirements of subsection
(e)(1)(A) of this section and who shall use sources of radiation and
associated equipment or radiation survey instruments under the personal
supervision of a radiographer trainer.
(36) Radiographer trainer--A radiographer who instructs
and supervises radiographer trainees during on-the-job training and
who meets the requirements of subsection (e)(3) of this section.
(37) Radiographic exposure device--Any instrument containing
a sealed source fastened or contained therein, in which the sealed
source or shielding thereof may be moved, or otherwise changed, from
a shielded to unshielded position for purposes of making a radiographic
exposure (e.g., camera).
(38) Radiographic operations--All activities associated
with the presence of x-ray machines or radioactive sources in a radiographic
exposure device during the use of the machine or device or transport
(except when being transported by a common or contract transport).
Radiographic operations include surveys to confirm the adequacy of
boundaries, setting up equipment, and any activity inside restricted
(39) Radiographic personnel--Any radiographer, radiographer
trainer, or radiographer trainee.