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TITLE 30ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
PART 1TEXAS COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
CHAPTER 336RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE RULES
SUBCHAPTER DSTANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION
RULE §336.362Appendix E. Classification and Characteristics of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

(a) Classification of radioactive waste for near-surface disposal.

  (1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves two considerations. First, consideration must be given to the concentration of long-lived radionuclides (and their shorter-lived precursors) whose potential hazards persist long after precautions such as institutional controls, improved waste form, and deeper disposal have ceased to be effective. These precautions delay the time when long-lived radionuclides could cause exposures. In addition, the magnitude of the potential dose is limited by the concentration and availability of the radionuclide at the time of exposure. Second, consideration must be given to the concentration of shorter-lived radionuclides for which requirements on institutional controls, waste form, and disposal methods are effective.

  (2) Classes of waste.

    (A) Class A waste is waste that is usually segregated from other waste classes at the disposal site. The physical form and characteristics of Class A waste must meet the minimum requirements set forth in subsection (b)(1) of this appendix. If Class A waste also meets the stability requirements set forth in subsection (b)(2) of this appendix, it is not necessary to segregate the waste for disposal.

    (B) Class B waste is waste that must meet more rigorous requirements on waste form to ensure stability after disposal. The physical form and characteristics of Class B waste must meet both the minimum and stability requirements set forth in subsection (b) of this appendix.

    (C) Class C waste is waste that not only must meet more rigorous requirements on waste form to ensure stability but also requires additional measures at the disposal facility to protect against inadvertent intrusion. The physical form and characteristics of Class C waste must meet both the minimum and stability requirements set forth in subsection (b) of this appendix.

    (D) Waste that is not generally acceptable for near-surface disposal is waste for which form and disposal methods must be different, and in general more stringent, than those specified for Class C waste. Disposal of this waste is regulated by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  (3) Classification determined by long-lived radionuclides. If the radioactive waste contains only radionuclides listed in Table I, classification shall be determined as follows:

    (A) If the concentration does not exceed 0.1 times the value in Table I, the waste is Class A.

    (B) If the concentration exceeds 0.1 times the value in Table I but does not exceed the value in Table I, the waste is Class C.

    (C) If the concentration exceeds the value in Table I, the waste is not generally acceptable for near-surface disposal.

    (D) For wastes containing mixtures of radionuclides listed in Table I, the total concentration shall be determined by the sum of fractions rule described in paragraph (7) of this subsection.

Attached Graphic   (4) Classification determined by short-lived radionuclides. If the radioactive waste does not contain any of the radionuclides listed in Table I, classification shall be determined based on the concentrations shown in Table II. However, as specified in paragraph (6) of this subsection, if radioactive waste does not contain any nuclides listed in either Table I or II, it is Class A.

    (A) If the concentration does not exceed the value in Column 1, the waste is Class A.

    (B) If the concentration exceeds the value in Column 1 but does not exceed the value in Column 2, the waste is Class B.

    (C) If the concentration exceeds the value in Column 2 but does not exceed the value in Column 3, the waste is Class C.

    (D) If the concentration exceeds the value in Column 3, the waste is not generally acceptable for near-surface disposal.

    (E) For wastes containing mixtures of the radionuclides listed in Table II, the total concentration shall be determined by the sum of fractions rule described in paragraph (7) of this subsection.

Attached Graphic   (5) Classification determined by both long- and short-lived radionuclides. If the radioactive waste contains a mixture of radionuclides, some of which are listed in Table I and some of which are listed in Table II, classification shall be determined as follows:

    (A) If the concentration of a radionuclide listed in Table I does not exceed 0.1 times the value listed in Table I, the class shall be that determined by the concentration of radionuclides listed in Table II.

    (B) If the concentration of a radionuclide listed in Table I exceeds 0.1 times the value listed in Table I but does not exceed the value in Table I, the waste shall be Class C, provided the concentration of radionuclides listed in Table II does not exceed the value shown in Column 3 of Table II.

  (6) Classification of wastes with radionuclides other than those listed in Tables I and II. If the waste does not contain any radionuclides listed in either Table I or II, it is Class A.

  (7) The sum of the fractions rule for mixtures of radionuclides. For determining classification for waste that contains a mixture of radionuclides, it is necessary to determine the sum of fractions by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by the appropriate limit and adding the resulting values. The appropriate limits must all be taken from the same column of the same table. The sum of the fractions for the column must be less than 1.0 if the waste class is to be determined by that column. For example, if a waste contains strontium-90 in a concentration of 50 curies/cubic meter (Ci/m[sup]3[/sup]) (1.85 terabecquerels/m[sup]3[/sup]) and cesium-137 in a concentration of 22 Ci/m[sup]3[/sup] (814 gigabecquerels/m[sup]3[/sup]), since the concentrations both exceed the values in Column 1, Table II, they must be compared to the Column 2 values. For the strontium-90 fraction, 50/150 = 0.33, and for the cesium-137 fraction, 22/44 = 0.5; the sum of the fractions = 0.83. Since the sum is less than 1.0, the waste is Class B.

  (8) Determination of concentrations in wastes. The concentration of a radionuclide may be determined by indirect methods, such as use of scaling factors which relate the inferred concentration of one radionuclide to another that is measured, or radionuclide material accountability, if there is reasonable assurance that the indirect methods can be correlated with actual measurements. The concentration of a radionuclide may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram.

(b) Radioactive waste characteristics.

  (1) The following are minimum requirements for all classes of waste and are intended to facilitate handling and to provide protection of health and safety of personnel at the disposal site.

    (A) Waste shall be packaged in conformance with the conditions of the license issued for the disposal site. Where the license conditions for the disposal site are more restrictive than the provisions of this appendix, the license conditions shall govern.

    (B) Waste shall not be packaged for disposal in cardboard or fiberboard boxes.

    (C) Liquid waste shall be solidified or packaged in sufficient absorbent material to absorb twice the volume of the liquid.

    (D) Solid waste containing liquid shall contain as little free-standing and noncorrosive liquid as is reasonably achievable, but in no case shall the liquid exceed 1.0% of the volume.

    (E) Waste shall not be readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or reaction at normal pressures and temperatures or of explosive reaction with water.

    (F) Waste shall not contain, or be capable of generating, quantities of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes harmful to persons transporting, handling, or disposing of the waste. This does not apply to radioactive gaseous waste packaged in accordance with subparagraph (H) of this paragraph.

    (G) Waste must not be pyrophoric. Pyrophoric materials contained in waste shall be treated, prepared, and packaged to be nonflammable.

    (H) Waste in a gaseous form shall be packaged at an absolute pressure that does not exceed 1.5 atmospheres at 20 degrees Celsius. Total activity shall not exceed 100 curies (3.7 terabecquerels) per container.

    (I) Waste containing hazardous, biological, pathogenic, or infectious material shall be treated to reduce to the maximum extent practicable the potential hazard from the nonradiological materials.

  (2) The following requirements are intended to provide stability of the waste. Stability is intended to ensure that the waste does not degrade and affect overall stability of the site through slumping, collapse, or other failure of the disposal unit and thereby lead to water infiltration. Stability is also a factor in limiting exposure to an inadvertent intruder, since it provides a recognizable and nondispersible waste.

    (A) Waste shall have structural stability. A structurally stable waste form will generally maintain its physical dimensions and its form, under the expected disposal conditions such as weight of overburden and compaction equipment, the presence of moisture, and microbial activity and internal factors such as radiation effects and chemical changes. Structural stability can be provided by the waste form itself, processing the waste to a stable form, or placing the waste in a disposal container or structure that provides stability after disposal.

    (B) Notwithstanding the provisions in paragraphs (1)(C) and (D) of this subsection, liquid wastes, or wastes containing liquid, shall be converted into a form that contains as little free-standing and non-corrosive liquid as is reasonably achievable, but in no case shall the liquid exceed 1.0% of the volume of the waste when the waste is in a disposal container designed to ensure stability, or 0.5% of the volume of the waste for waste processed to a stable form.

    (C) Void spaces within the waste and between the waste and its package shall be reduced to the extent practicable.

(c) Labeling. Each package of waste shall be clearly labeled to identify whether it is Class A, Class B, or Class C waste, in accordance with subsection (a) of this appendix.


Source Note: The provisions of this §336.362 adopted to be effective June 5, 1997, 22 TexReg 4588.

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