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TITLE 19EDUCATION
PART 2TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY
CHAPTER 74CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS
SUBCHAPTER AREQUIRED CURRICULUM
RULE §74.4English Language Proficiency Standards

  (5) Cross-curricular second language acquisition/writing. The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:

    (A) learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

    (B) write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

    (C) spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

    (D) edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

    (E) employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:

      (i) using correct verbs, tenses, and pronouns/antecedents;

      (ii) using possessive case (apostrophe s ) correctly; and

      (iii) using negatives and contractions correctly;

    (F) write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired; and

    (G) narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.

(d) Proficiency level descriptors.

  (1) Listening, Kindergarten-Grade 12. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. The following proficiency level descriptors for listening are sufficient to describe the overall English language proficiency levels of ELLs in this language domain in order to linguistically accommodate their instruction.

    (A) Beginning. Beginning ELLs have little or no ability to understand spoken English in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) struggle to understand simple conversations and simple discussions even when the topics are familiar and the speaker uses linguistic supports such as visuals, slower speech and other verbal cues, and gestures;

      (ii) struggle to identify and distinguish individual words and phrases during social and instructional interactions that have not been intentionally modified for ELLs; and

      (iii) may not seek clarification in English when failing to comprehend the English they hear; frequently remain silent, watching others for cues.

    (B) Intermediate. Intermediate ELLs have the ability to understand simple, high-frequency spoken English used in routine academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) usually understand simple or routine directions, as well as short, simple conversations and short, simple discussions on familiar topics; when topics are unfamiliar, require extensive linguistic supports and adaptations such as visuals, slower speech and other verbal cues, simplified language, gestures, and preteaching to preview or build topic-related vocabulary;

      (ii) often identify and distinguish key words and phrases necessary to understand the general meaning during social and basic instructional interactions that have not been intentionally modified for ELLs; and

      (iii) have the ability to seek clarification in English when failing to comprehend the English they hear by requiring/requesting the speaker to repeat, slow down, or rephrase speech.

    (C) Advanced. Advanced ELLs have the ability to understand, with second language acquisition support, grade-appropriate spoken English used in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) usually understand longer, more elaborated directions, conversations, and discussions on familiar and some unfamiliar topics, but sometimes need processing time and sometimes depend on visuals, verbal cues, and gestures to support understanding;

      (ii) understand most main points, most important details, and some implicit information during social and basic instructional interactions that have not been intentionally modified for ELLs; and

      (iii) occasionally require/request the speaker to repeat, slow down, or rephrase to clarify the meaning of the English they hear.

    (D) Advanced high. Advanced high ELLs have the ability to understand, with minimal second language acquisition support, grade-appropriate spoken English used in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) understand longer, elaborated directions, conversations, and discussions on familiar and unfamiliar topics with occasional need for processing time and with little dependence on visuals, verbal cues, and gestures; some exceptions when complex academic or highly specialized language is used;

      (ii) understand main points, important details, and implicit information at a level nearly comparable to native English-speaking peers during social and instructional interactions; and

      (iii) rarely require/request the speaker to repeat, slow down, or rephrase to clarify the meaning of the English they hear.

  (2) Speaking, Kindergarten-Grade 12. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. The following proficiency level descriptors for speaking are sufficient to describe the overall English language proficiency levels of ELLs in this language domain in order to linguistically accommodate their instruction.

    (A) Beginning. Beginning ELLs have little or no ability to speak English in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) mainly speak using single words and short phrases consisting of recently practiced, memorized, or highly familiar material to get immediate needs met; may be hesitant to speak and often give up in their attempts to communicate;

      (ii) speak using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts;

      (iii) lack the knowledge of English grammar necessary to connect ideas and speak in sentences; can sometimes produce sentences using recently practiced, memorized, or highly familiar material;

      (iv) exhibit second language acquisition errors that may hinder overall communication, particularly when trying to convey information beyond memorized, practiced, or highly familiar material; and

      (v) typically use pronunciation that significantly inhibits communication.

    (B) Intermediate. Intermediate ELLs have the ability to speak in a simple manner using English commonly heard in routine academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) are able to express simple, original messages, speak using sentences, and participate in short conversations and classroom interactions; may hesitate frequently and for long periods to think about how to communicate desired meaning;

      (ii) speak simply using basic vocabulary needed in everyday social interactions and routine academic contexts; rarely have vocabulary to speak in detail;

      (iii) exhibit an emerging awareness of English grammar and speak using mostly simple sentence structures and simple tenses; are most comfortable speaking in present tense;

      (iv) exhibit second language acquisition errors that may hinder overall communication when trying to use complex or less familiar English; and

      (v) use pronunciation that can usually be understood by people accustomed to interacting with ELLs.

    (C) Advanced. Advanced ELLs have the ability to speak using grade-appropriate English, with second language acquisition support, in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) are able to participate comfortably in most conversations and academic discussions on familiar topics, with some pauses to restate, repeat, or search for words and phrases to clarify meaning;

      (ii) discuss familiar academic topics using content-based terms and common abstract vocabulary; can usually speak in some detail on familiar topics;

      (iii) have a grasp of basic grammar features, including a basic ability to narrate and describe in present, past, and future tenses; have an emerging ability to use complex sentences and complex grammar features;

      (iv) make errors that interfere somewhat with communication when using complex grammar structures, long sentences, and less familiar words and expressions; and

      (v) may mispronounce words, but use pronunciation that can usually be understood by people not accustomed to interacting with ELLs.

    (D) Advanced high. Advanced high ELLs have the ability to speak using grade-appropriate English, with minimal second language acquisition support, in academic and social settings. These students:

      (i) are able to participate in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics with only occasional disruptions, hesitations, or pauses;

      (ii) communicate effectively using abstract and content-based vocabulary during classroom instructional tasks, with some exceptions when low-frequency or academically demanding vocabulary is needed; use many of the same idioms and colloquialisms as their native English-speaking peers;

      (iii) can use English grammar structures and complex sentences to narrate and describe at a level nearly comparable to native English-speaking peers;

      (iv) make few second language acquisition errors that interfere with overall communication; and

      (v) may mispronounce words, but rarely use pronunciation that interferes with overall communication.

  (3) Reading, Kindergarten-Grade 1. ELLs in Kindergarten and Grade 1 may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. The following proficiency level descriptors for reading are sufficient to describe the overall English language proficiency levels of ELLs in this language domain in order to linguistically accommodate their instruction and should take into account developmental stages of emergent readers.

    (A) Beginning. Beginning ELLs have little or no ability to use the English language to build foundational reading skills. These students:

      (i) derive little or no meaning from grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English, unless the stories are:

        (I) read in short "chunks;"

        (II) controlled to include the little English they know such as language that is high frequency, concrete, and recently practiced; and

        (III) accompanied by ample visual supports such as illustrations, gestures, pantomime, and objects and by linguistic supports such as careful enunciation and slower speech;

      (ii) begin to recognize and understand environmental print in English such as signs, labeled items, names of peers, and logos; and

      (iii) have difficulty decoding most grade-appropriate English text because they:

        (I) understand the meaning of very few words in English; and

        (II) struggle significantly with sounds in spoken English words and with sound-symbol relationships due to differences between their primary language and English.

    (B) Intermediate. Intermediate ELLs have a limited ability to use the English language to build foundational reading skills. These students:

      (i) demonstrate limited comprehension (key words and general meaning) of grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English, unless the stories include:

        (I) predictable story lines;

        (II) highly familiar topics;

        (III) primarily high-frequency, concrete vocabulary;

        (IV) short, simple sentences; and

        (V) visual and linguistic supports;

      (ii) regularly recognize and understand common environmental print in English such as signs, labeled items, names of peers, logos; and

      (iii) have difficulty decoding grade-appropriate English text because they:

        (I) understand the meaning of only those English words they hear frequently; and

        (II) struggle with some sounds in English words and some sound-symbol relationships due to differences between their primary language and English.

    (C) Advanced. Advanced ELLs have the ability to use the English language, with second language acquisition support, to build foundational reading skills. These students:

      (i) demonstrate comprehension of most main points and most supporting ideas in grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English, although they may still depend on visual and linguistic supports to gain or confirm meaning;

      (ii) recognize some basic English vocabulary and high-frequency words in isolated print; and

Cont'd...

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