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RULE §135.52Construction Requirements for a New Ambulatory Surgical Center

    (A) Flooring shall be easy to clean and have wear resistance appropriate for the location involved. Floors that are subject to traffic while wet (such as shower and bath areas, and similar work areas) shall have a nonslip surface. In all areas frequently subject to wet cleaning methods, floor materials shall not be physically affected by germicidal and cleaning solutions. The following are acceptable floor finishes:

      (i) painted concrete for mechanical, electrical, communication rooms, and janitor's closets;

      (ii) vinyl and vinyl composition tiles and sheets tiles for offices, lobbies, administrative areas, storage, staff and public toilet rooms, examination rooms, support spaces, and nontreatment areas;

      (iii) monolithic or seamless flooring shall be provided for all operating rooms, special procedure rooms, treatment rooms, patient toilet rooms, soiled workrooms, and sterilizing facility(ies). Seamless flooring shall be impervious to water, coved and installed integral with the base, tightly sealed to the wall, and without voids that can harbor insects or retain dirt particles. The base shall not be less then six inches in height. Welded joint flooring is acceptable;

      (iv) marble, ceramic and quarry tile for offices, lobbies, staff and public toilet rooms, administrative areas, wet areas, and similar spaces;

      (v) carpet flooring for offices, lobbies, and administrative areas. Carpeting shall not be installed in any preoperative holding, toilet rooms, treatment rooms, examination rooms, and similar spaces; and

      (vi) terrazzo for offices, lobbies, administrative areas, and similar spaces.

    (B) Threshold and expansion joint covers. Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 inch in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2 inch for other type doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes at accessible doorways shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2. Expansion joint covers shall not exceed 1/2 inch in height and shall have beveled edges with a slope no greater than 1:2.

  (4) Wall finishes. Wall finishes shall be smooth, washable, moisture resistant, and cleanable by standard housekeeping practices. Wall finishes shall be in compliance with the requirements of NFPA 101, §38.3.3, relating to flame spread.

    (A) Finishes at plumbing fixtures. Wall finishes shall be water-resistant in the immediate area of plumbing fixtures.

    (B) Wet cleaning methods. Wall finishes in areas subject to frequent wet cleaning methods shall be impervious to water, tightly sealed, and without voids.

  (5) Ceiling finishes. All occupied rooms and spaces shall be provided with finished ceilings, unless otherwise noted. Ceilings which are a part of a rated roof/ceiling assembly or a floor/ceiling assembly shall be constructed of listed components and installed in accordance with the listing. Three types of ceilings that are required in various areas of the ASC are:

    (A) ordinary ceilings. Ceilings are required in all areas or rooms in the ASC unless otherwise noted. This includes ceilings such as acoustical tiles installed in a metal grid which are dry cleanable with equipment used in daily housekeeping activities such as dusters and vacuum cleaners;

    (B) washable ceilings. When ceilings that dictate this type of cleaning or protection for these spaces such as soil utility or soil workroom, the ceilings shall be made of washable, smooth, moisture impervious materials such as painted lay-in gypsum wallboard or vinyl faced acoustic tile in a metal grid; and

    (C) monolithic ceilings. Ceilings which are monolithic from wall to wall (painted solid gypsum wallboard), smooth and without fissures, open joints, or crevices and with a washable and moisture impervious finish shall be provided in the operating rooms, special procedure rooms, and sterilizing facilities.

    (D) Nonceiling requirements. Finished ceilings may be omitted in mechanical, electrical, communication rooms and equipment spaces, shops, and similar spaces unless required for fire-resistive purposes.

  (6) Floor, wall, and ceiling penetrations. Floor, wall, and ceiling penetrations by pipes, ducts, and conduits, or any direct openings shall be tightly sealed to minimize entry of dirt particles, rodents, and insects. Joints of structural elements shall be similarly sealed.

  (7) Materials finishes. Materials known to produce noxious gases when burned shall not be used for mattresses, upholstery, and wall finishes.

(g) General mechanical requirements. This subsection contains requirements for mechanical systems; air conditioning, heating and ventilating systems; steam and hot and cold water systems; and thermal and acoustical insulation.

  (1) Cost. All mechanical systems shall be designed for overall efficiency and life cycle costing, including operational costs. Recognized engineering practices shall be followed to achieve the most economical and effective results except that in no case shall patient care or safety be sacrificed for conservation.

  (2) Equipment location. Mechanical equipment may be located indoors or outdoors (when in a weatherproof enclosure), or in a separate building(s).

  (3) Vibration isolation. Mechanical equipment shall be mounted on vibration isolators as required to prevent unacceptable structure-borne vibration. Ducts, pipes, etc. connected to mechanical equipment which is a source of vibration shall be isolated from the equipment with vibration isolators.

  (4) Performance and acceptance. Prior to completion and acceptance of the facility, all mechanical systems shall be tested, balanced, and operated to demonstrate to the design engineer or his representative that the installation and performance of these systems conform to the requirements of the plans and specifications.

    (A) Material lists. Upon completion of the contract, the owner shall obtain from the construction contractor parts lists and procurement information with numbers and descriptions for each piece of equipment.

    (B) Instructions. Upon completion of the contract, the owner shall obtain from the construction contractor instructions in the operational use and maintenance of systems and equipment as required.

  (5) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    (A) All central HVAC systems shall comply with and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, 2002 Edition, or NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems, 2002 Edition, as applicable and the requirements contained in this paragraph. Air handling units serving two or more rooms are considered to be central units.

    (B) Noncentral air handling systems, i.e., individual room units that are used for heating and cooling purposes (e.g., fan-coil units, heat pump units, and packaged terminal air conditioning units) shall be equipped with permanent (cleanable) or replaceable filters. The filters shall have an average efficiency of 25 - 30% and an average arrestance of 85% based on American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Inc., Standard 52.2, 1999 edition, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size. These units shall be used as air recirculating units only. All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a separate central air handling system with the proper filtration, as required in Table 1 of §135.56(a) of this title.

    (C) General ventilation requirements. All rooms and areas in the ASC shall have provision for positive ventilation. Fans serving exhaust systems shall be located at the discharge end and shall be conveniently accessible for service. Exhaust systems may be combined, unless otherwise noted, for efficient use of recovery devices required for energy conservation. The ventilation rates shown in Table 1 of §135.56(a) of this title shall be used only as minimum requirements, since they do not preclude the use of higher rates that may be appropriate.

      (i) Cost reduction methods. To reduce utility costs, facility design may utilize energy conserving procedures including recovery devices, variable air volume, load shedding, systems shutdown, or reduction of ventilation rates (when specifically permitted) in certain areas when unoccupied. In no case shall patient care be jeopardized.

      (ii) Economizer cycle. Mechanical systems shall be arranged to take advantage of outside air conditions by using an economizer cycle when appropriate to reduce heating and cooling systems loads. Innovative design that provides for additional energy conservation while meeting the intent of this section for acceptable patient care may be presented to the department for consideration.


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