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RULE §290.41Water Sources

    (I) The well site shall be fine graded so that the site is free from depressions, reverse grades, or areas too rough for proper ground maintenance so as to ensure that surface water will drain away from the well. In all cases, arrangements shall be made to convey well pump drainage, packing gland leakage, and floor drainage away from the wellhead. Suitable drain pipes located at the outer edge of the concrete floor shall be provided to collect this water and prevent its ponding or collecting around the wellhead. This wastewater shall be disposed of in a manner that will not cause any nuisance from mosquito breeding or stagnation. Drains shall not be directly connected to storm or sanitary sewers.

    (J) In all cases, a concrete sealing block extending at least three feet from the well casing in all directions, with a minimum thickness of six inches and sloped to drain away at not less than 0.25 inches per foot shall be provided around the wellhead.

    (K) Wellheads and pump bases shall be sealed by a gasket or sealing compound and properly vented to prevent the possibility of contaminating the well water. A well casing vent shall be provided with an opening that is covered with 16-mesh or finer corrosion-resistant screen, facing downward, elevated and located so as to minimize the drawing of contaminants into the well. Wellheads and well vents shall be at least two feet above the highest known watermark or 100-year flood elevation, if available, or adequately protected from possible flood damage by levees.

    (L) If a well blow-off line is provided, its discharge shall terminate in a downward direction and at a point which will not be submerged by flood waters.

    (M) A suitable sampling cock shall be provided on the discharge pipe of each well pump prior to any treatment.

    (N) Flow-measuring devices shall be provided for each well to measure production yields and provide for the accumulation of water production data. These devices shall be located to facilitate daily reading.

    (O) All completed well units shall be protected by intruder-resistant fences, the gates of which are provided with locks or shall be enclosed in locked, ventilated well houses to exclude possible contamination or damage to the facilities by trespassers. The gates or wellhouses shall be locked during periods of darkness and when the plant is unattended.

    (P) An all-weather access road shall be provided to each well site.

    (Q) If an air release device is provided on the discharge piping, it shall be installed in such a manner as to preclude the possibility of submergence or possible entrance of contaminants. In this respect, all openings to the atmosphere shall be covered with 16-mesh or finer, corrosion-resistant screening material or an acceptable equivalent.

  (4) Pitless units may be desirable in areas subject to vandalism or extended periods of subfreezing weather.

    (A) Pitless units shall be shop fabricated from the point of connection with the well casing to the unit cap or cover, be threaded or welded to the well casing, be of watertight construction throughout, and be of materials and weight at least equivalent and compatible to the casing. The units must have a field connection to the lateral discharge from the pitless unit of threaded, flanged, or mechanical joint connection.

    (B) The design of the pitless unit shall make provisions for an access to disinfect the well, a properly designed casing vent, a cover at the upper terminal of the well that will prevent the entrance of contamination, a sealed entrance connection for electrical cable, and at least one check valve within the well casing. The unit shall have an inside diameter as great as that of the well casing up to and including casing diameters of 12 inches.

    (C) If the connection to the casing is by field weld, the shop-assembled unit must be designed specifically for field welding to the casing. The only field welding permitted will be that needed to connect a pitless unit to the well casing.

    (D) With the exception of the fact that the well was constructed using a pitless unit, the well must otherwise meet all of the requirements of paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(d) Springs and other water sources.

  (1) Springs and other similar sources of flowing artesian water shall be protected from potential contaminant sources in accordance with the requirements of subsection (c)(1) of this section.

  (2) Before placing the spring or similar source into service, completion data similar to that required by subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section must be submitted to the executive director for review and approval to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Water Supply Division, MC 159, P.O. Box 13087, Austin, Texas 78711-3087.

  (3) Springs and similar sources shall be constructed in a manner which will preclude the entrance of surface water and debris.

    (A) The site shall be fine graded so that it is free from depressions, reverse grades, or areas too rough for proper ground maintenance in order to ensure that surface water will drain away from the source.

    (B) The spring or similar source shall be encased in an open-bottomed, watertight basin which intercepts the flowing water below the surface of the ground. The basin shall extend at least 18 inches above ground level. The top of the basin shall also be at least two feet above the highest known watermark or 100-year flood elevation, if available, or adequately protected from possible flood damage by levees.

    (C) In all cases, a concrete sealing block shall be provided which extends at least three feet from the encasement in all directions. The sealing block shall be at least six inches thick and be sloped to drain away from the encasement at not less than 0.25 inches per foot.

    (D) The top of the encasement shall be provided with a sloped, watertight roof which prevents the ponding of water and precludes the entrance of animals, insects, and other sources of contamination.

    (E) The roof of the encasement shall be provided with a hatch that is not less than 30 inches in diameter. The hatch shall have a raised curbing at least four inches in height with a lockable cover that overlaps the curbing at least two inches in a downward direction. Where necessary, a gasket shall be used to make a positive seal when the hatch is closed. All hatches shall remain locked except during inspections and maintenance.

    (F) The encasement shall be provided with a gooseneck vent or roof ventilator which is equipped with approved screens to prevent entry of animals, birds, insects, and heavy air contaminants. Screens shall be fabricated of corrosion-resistant material and shall be 16-mesh or finer. Screens shall be securely clamped in place with stainless or galvanized bands or wires.

    (G) The encasement shall be provided with an overflow which is designed to prevent the entry of animals, birds, insects, and debris. The discharge opening of the overflow shall be above the surface of the ground and shall not be subject to submergence.

  (4) Springs and similar sources must be provided with the appurtenances required by subsection (c)(3)(L) - (Q) of this section.

  (5) All systems with new springs or similar sources must monitor microbiological source water quality at the new springs or similar sources in accordance with §290.111 of this title (relating to Surface Water Treatment) on a schedule determined by the executive director. The system must notify the agency of the new spring or similar source prior to construction. The executive director may waive these requirements if the spring or similar source has been determined not to be under the direct influence of surface water.

(e) Surface water sources and development.

  (1) To determine the degree of pollution from all sources within the watershed, an evaluation shall be made of the surface water source in the area of diversion and its tributary streams. The area where surface water sources are diverted for drinking water use shall be evaluated and protected from sources of contamination.

    (A) Where surface water sources are subject to continuous or intermittent contamination by municipal, agricultural, or industrial wastes and/or treated effluent, the adverse effects of the contamination on the quality of the raw water reaching the treatment plant shall be determined by site evaluations and laboratory procedures.

    (B) The disposal of all liquid or solid wastes from any source on the watershed must be in conformity with applicable regulations and state statutes.

    (C) Shore installations, marinas, boats and all habitations on the watershed shall be provided with satisfactory sewage disposal facilities. Septic tanks and soil absorption fields, tile or concrete sanitary sewers, sewer manholes, or other approved toilet facilities shall not be located in an area within 75 feet horizontally from the lake water surface at the uncontrolled spillway elevation of the lake or 75 feet horizontally from the 50-year flood elevation, whichever is lower.


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