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RULE §510.122New Construction Requirements

  (3) General mechanical requirements. This paragraph contains common requirements for mechanical systems; steam and hot and cold water systems; air-conditioning, heating and ventilating systems; plumbing fixtures; piping systems; and thermal and acoustical insulation. The facility shall comply with the requirements of this paragraph and any specific mechanical requirements for the particular unit or suite of the facility in accordance with §134.123 of this title.

    (A) Cost. All mechanical systems shall be designed for overall efficiency and life cycle costing, including operational costs. Recognized engineering procedures shall be followed to achieve the most economical and effective results. In no case shall patient care or safety be sacrificed for conservation.

    (B) Equipment location. Mechanical equipment may be located indoors or outdoors (when in a weatherproof enclosure), or in separate building(s).

    (C) Vibration isolation. Mechanical equipment shall be mounted on vibration isolators as required to prevent unacceptable structure-borne vibration. Ducts, pipes, etc. connected to mechanical equipment which is a source of vibration shall be isolated from the equipment with vibration isolators.

    (D) Performance and acceptance. Prior to completion and acceptance of the facility, all mechanical systems shall be tested, balanced, and operated to demonstrate to the design engineer or his representative that the installation and performance of these systems conform to the requirements of the plans and specifications.

      (i) Material lists. Upon completion of the contract, the owner shall be provided with parts lists and procurement information with numbers and description for each piece of equipment.

      (ii) Instructions. Upon completion of the contract, the owner shall be provided with instructions in the operational use of systems and equipment as required.

    (E) Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. All HVAC systems shall comply with and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of National Fire Protection Association 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, 1999 edition, (NFPA 90A), NFPA 99, Chapter 5, the requirements contained in this subparagraph, and the specific requirements for a particular unit in accordance with §134.123 of this title.

      (i) General ventilation requirements. All rooms and areas in the facility listed in Table 3 of §134.131(c) of this title shall have provision for positive ventilation. Fans serving exhaust systems shall be located at the discharge end and shall be conveniently accessible for service. Exhaust systems may be combined, unless otherwise noted, for efficient use of recovery devices required for energy conservation. The ventilation rates shown in Table 3 of §134.131(c) of this title shall be used only as minimum requirements since they do not preclude the use of higher rates that may be appropriate. Supply air to the building and exhaust air from the building shall be regulated to provide a positive pressure within the building with respect to the exterior.

        (I) Cost reduction methods. To reduce utility costs, the building design and systems proposed shall utilize energy conserving procedures including recovery devices, variable air volume, load shedding, systems shut down or reduction of ventilation rates (when specifically permitted) in certain areas when unoccupied, insofar as patient care is not jeopardized.

        (II) Economizer cycle. Mechanical ventilation shall be arranged to take advantage of outside air supply by using an economizer cycle when appropriate to reduce heating and cooling systems loads. Innovative design that provides for additional energy conservation while meeting the intent of this section for acceptable patient care will be considered.

        (III) Outside air intake locations. Outside air intakes shall be located at least 25 feet from exhaust outlets of ventilating systems, combustion equipment stacks, medical-surgical vacuum systems, plumbing vents, or areas which may collect vehicular exhaust or other noxious fumes. (Prevailing winds and proximity to other structures may require other arrangements.) Plumbing and vacuum vents that terminate five feet above the level of the top of the air intake may be located as close as 10 feet.

        (IV) Low air intake location limit. The bottom of outside air intakes serving central systems shall be located as high as practical but at least six feet above ground level, or if installed above the roof, three feet above the roof level.

        (V) Contaminated air exhaust outlets. Exhaust outlets from areas (kitchen hoods, ethylene oxide sterilizers, etc.) that exhaust contaminated air shall be above the roof level and arranged to exhaust upward.

        (VI) Directional air flow. Ventilation systems shall be designed and balanced to provide directional flow as shown in Table 3 of §134.131(c) of this title. For reductions and shut down of ventilation systems when a room is unoccupied, the provisions in Note 4 of Table 3 of §134.131(c) of this title shall be followed.

        (VII) Areas requiring fully ducted systems. Fully ducted supply, return and exhaust air for HVAC systems shall be provided for all general patient care areas and where required for fire safety purposes. Combination systems, utilizing both ducts and plenums for movement of air in these areas shall not be permitted. Such areas include isolation rooms and food preparation areas.

        (VIII) Ventilation start-up requirements. Air handling systems shall not be started up and operated without the filters installed in place. This includes the 90% efficiency filters where required. Ducts shall be cleaned thoroughly by an air duct cleaning contractor when the air handling systems have been operating without the required filters in place.

        (IX) Humidifier location. When duct humidifiers are located upstream of the final filters, they shall be located at least 15 feet from the filters. Ductwork with duct-mounted humidifiers shall be provided with a means of removing water accumulation. An adjustable high-limit humidistat shall be located downstream of the humidifier to reduce the potential of condensation inside the duct. All duct take-offs should be sufficiently downstream of the humidifier to ensure complete moisture absorption. Reservoir-type water spray or evaporative pan humidifiers shall not be used.

      (ii) Filtration requirements. All central air handling systems serving patient care areas, including nursing unit corridors, shall be equipped with filters having efficiencies equal to, or greater than, those specified for those types of areas in Table 4 of §134.131(d) of this title. Filter efficiencies shall be average efficiencies tested in accordance with American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Inc., Standard 52, 1999 edition, (relating to Gravimetric and Dust Spot Procedures for Testing Air Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter). All joints between filter segments, and between filter segments and the enclosing ductwork, shall have gaskets and seals to provide a positive seal against air leakage. Air handlers serving more than one room shall be considered as central air handlers. All documents published by ASHRAE as referenced in this section may be obtained by writing or calling the ASHRAE, Inc. at the following address or telephone number: ASHRAE, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N. E., Atlanta, GA 30329; telephone (404) 636-8400.

        (I) Filtration requirements for air handling units serving single rooms requiring asepsis control. Dedicated air handlers serving only one room where asepsis control is required, such as, but not limited to, operating rooms, delivery rooms, special procedure rooms, and nurseries shall be equipped with filters having efficiencies equal to, or greater than, those specified for patient care areas in Table 4 of §134.131(d) of this title.

        (II) Filtration requirements for air handling units serving other single rooms. Dedicated air handlers serving all other single rooms shall be equipped with nominal filters installed at the return air grille.

        (III) Location of multiple filters. Where two filter beds are required by Table 4 of §134.131(d) of this title, filter bed number one shall be located upstream of the air-conditioning equipment, and filter bed number two shall be downstream of the supply fan or blowers.

        (IV) Location of single filters. Where only one filter bed is required by Table 4 of §134.131(d) of this title, it shall be located upstream of the supply fan. Filter frames shall be durable and constructed to provide an airtight fit with the enclosing ductwork.

        (V) Pressure monitoring devices. A manometer or draft gauge shall be installed across each filter bed having a required efficiency of 75% or more including hoods requiring high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.

      (iii) Thermal and acoustical insulation for air handling systems. Asbestos insulation shall not be used.

        (I) Thermal duct insulation. Air ducts and casings with outside surface temperature below ambient dew point or temperature above 80 degrees Fahrenheit shall be provided with thermal insulation.

        (II) Insulation in air plenums and ducts. Linings in air ducts and equipment shall meet the Erosion Test Method described in Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Standard Number 181 (relating to Factory-Made Duct Materials and Air Duct Connectors). This document may be obtained from the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096.

        (III) Insulation flame spread and smoke developed ratings. Interior and exterior insulation, including finishes and adhesives on the exterior surfaces of ducts and equipment, shall have a flame spread rating of 25 or less and a smoke developed rating of 50 or less as required by NFPA 90A, Chapters 2 and 3.

        (IV) Linings and acoustical traps. Duct lining and acoustical traps exposed to air movement shall not be used in ducts serving critical care areas. This requirement shall not apply to mixing boxes and acoustical traps that have approved nonabrasive coverings over such linings.

        (V) Frangible insulation. Insulation of soft and spray-on types shall not be used where it is subject to air currents or mechanical erosion or where loose particles may create a maintenance problem.

        (VI) Existing duct linings. Internal linings shall not be used in ducts, terminal boxes, or other air system components supplying operating rooms, delivery rooms, birthing rooms, labor rooms, recovery rooms, nurseries, trauma rooms, isolation rooms, and intensive care units unless terminal filters of at least 90% efficiency are installed downstream of linings.

      (iv) Fire damper requirements. Fire dampers shall be located and installed in all ducts at the point of penetration of a two-hour or higher fire rated wall or floor in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 101, §18-5.2.

      (v) Smoke damper requirements. Smoke dampers shall be located and installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 101, §18-3.7.3, and NFPA 90A, Chapter 3.

        (I) Fail-safe installation. Smoke dampers shall close on activation of the fire alarm system by smoke detectors installed and located as required by National Fire Protection Association 72, National Fire Alarm Code, 1999 edition (NFPA 72), Chapter 5; NFPA 90A, Chapter 4; and NFPA 101, §18-3.7; the fire sprinkler system; and upon loss of power. Smoke dampers shall not close by fan shut-down alone.

        (II) Interconnection of air handling fans and smoke dampers. Air handling fans and smoke damper controls may be interconnected so that closing of smoke dampers will not damage the ducts.

        (III) Frangible devices. Use of frangible devices for shutting smoke dampers is not permitted.

      (vi) Acceptable damper assemblies. Only fire damper and smoke damper assemblies integral with sleeves and listed for the intended purpose shall be acceptable.

      (vii) Duct access doors. Unobstructed access to duct openings in accordance with NFPA 90A, §2-3.4, shall be provided in ducts within reach and sight of every fire damper, smoke damper and smoke detector. Each opening shall be protected by an internally insulated door which shall be labeled externally to indicate the fire protection device located within.

      (viii) Restarting controls. Controls for restarting fans may be installed for convenient fire department use to assist in evacuation of smoke after a fire is controlled, provided that provisions are made to avoid possible damage to the system because of closed dampers. To accomplish this, smoke dampers shall be equipped with remote control devices.

      (ix) Make-up air. If air supply requirements in Table 3 of §134.131(c) of this title do not provide sufficient air for use by exhaust hoods and safety cabinets, filtered make-up air shall be ducted to maintain the required air flow direction in that room. Make-up systems for hoods shall be arranged to minimize short circuiting of air and to avoid reduction in air velocity at the point of contaminant capture.


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