(C) analyze and interpret elemental data, including
atomic radius, atomic mass, electronegativity, ionization energy,
and reactivity to identify periodic trends.
(6) Science concepts. The student understands the development
of atomic theory and applies it to realworld phenomena. The student
is expected to:
(A) construct models using Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's
discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, Bohr's
nuclear atom, and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle to show the development
of modern atomic theory over time;
(B) describe the structure of atoms and ions, including
the masses, electrical charges, and locations of protons and neutrons
in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;
(C) investigate the mathematical relationship between
energy, frequency, and wavelength of light using the electromagnetic
spectrum and relate it to the quantization of energy in the emission
spectrum;
(D) calculate average atomic mass of an element using
isotopic composition; and
(E) construct models to express the arrangement of
electrons in atoms of representative elements using electron configurations
and Lewis dot structures.
(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form
ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds. The student is expected to:
(A) construct an argument to support how periodic trends
such as electronegativity can predict bonding between elements;
(B) name and write the chemical formulas for ionic
and covalent compounds using International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;
(C) classify and draw electron dot structures for molecules
with linear, bent, trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, and tetrahedral
molecular geometries as explained by Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
(VSEPR) theory; and
(D) analyze the properties of ionic, covalent, and
metallic substances in terms of intramolecular and intermolecular
forces.
(8) Science concepts. The student understands how matter
is accounted for in chemical substances. The student is expected to:
(A) define mole and apply the concept of molar mass
to convert between moles and grams;
(B) calculate the number of atoms or molecules in a
sample of material using Avogadro's number;
(C) calculate percent composition of compounds; and
(D) differentiate between empirical and molecular formulas.
(9) Science concepts. The student understands how matter
is accounted for in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:
(A) interpret, write, and balance chemical equations,
including synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement,
and combustion reactions using the law of conservation of mass;
(B) differentiate among acidbase reactions, precipitation
reactions, and oxidationreduction reactions;
(C) perform stoichiometric calculations, including
determination of mass relationships, gas volume relationships, and
percent yield; and
(D) describe the concept of limiting reactants in a
balanced chemical equation.
(10) Science concepts. The student understands the
principles of the kinetic molecular theory and ideal gas behavior.
The student is expected to:
(A) describe the postulates of the kinetic molecular
theory;
(B) describe and calculate the relationships among
volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas;
and
(C) define and apply Dalton's law of partial pressure.
(11) Science concepts. The student understands and
can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The
student is expected to:
(A) describe the unique role of water in solutions
in terms of polarity;
(B) distinguish among types of solutions, including
electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated
solutions;
(C) investigate how solid and gas solubilities are
influenced by temperature using solubility curves and how rates of
dissolution are influenced by temperature, agitation, and surface
area;
(D) investigate the general rules regarding solubility
and predict the solubility of the products of a double replacement
reaction;
(E) calculate the concentration of solutions in units
of molarity; and
(F) calculate the dilutions of solutions using molarity.
(12) Science concepts. The student understands and
applies various rules regarding acids and bases. The student is expected
to:
(A) name and write the chemical formulas for acids
and bases using IUPAC nomenclature rules;
(B) define acids and bases and distinguish between
Arrhenius and BronstedLowry definitions;
(C) differentiate between strong and weak acids and
bases;
(D) predict products in acidbase reactions that form
water; and
(E) define pH and calculate the pH of a solution using
the hydrogen ion concentration.
(13) Science concepts. The student understands the
energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected
to:
(A) explain everyday examples that illustrate the four
laws of thermodynamics;
(B) investigate the process of heat transfer using
calorimetry;
(C) classify processes as exothermic or endothermic
and represent energy changes that occur in chemical reactions using
thermochemical equations or graphical analysis; and
(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature
change, and specific heat.
(14) Science concepts. The student understands the
basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and
gamma radioactive decay processes in terms of balanced nuclear equations;
(B) compare fission and fusion reactions; and
(C) give examples of applications of nuclear phenomena
such as nuclear stability, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging,
solar cells, and nuclear power.
