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 TITLE 19 EDUCATION PART 2 TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY CHAPTER 112 TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SCIENCE SUBCHAPTER C HIGH SCHOOL RULE §112.45 Physics (One Credit), Adopted 2020
 (A) analyze different types of motion by generating and interpreting position versus time, velocity versus time, and acceleration versus time using hand graphing and real-time technology such as motion detectors, photogates, or digital applications;     (B) define scalar and vector quantities related to one- and two-dimensional motion and combine vectors using both graphical vector addition and the Pythagorean theorem;     (C) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, frames of reference, and acceleration;     (D) describe and analyze acceleration in uniform circular and horizontal projectile motion in two dimensions using equations;     (E) explain and apply the concepts of equilibrium and inertia as represented by Newton's first law of motion using relevant real-world examples such as rockets, satellites, and automobile safety devices;     (F) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including tension, friction, normal, gravity, centripetal, and applied forces, using free body diagrams and the relationship between force and acceleration as represented by Newton's second law of motion;     (G) illustrate and analyze the simultaneous forces between two objects as represented in Newton's third law of motion using free body diagrams and in an experimental design scenario; and     (H) describe and calculate, using scientific notation, how the magnitude of force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers, and predict the effects on objects in linear and orbiting systems using Newton's law of universal gravitation.   (6) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:     (A) use scientific notation and predict how the magnitude of the electric force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between their centers using Coulomb's law;     (B) identify and describe examples of electric and magnetic forces and fields in everyday life such as generators, motors, and transformers;     (C) investigate and describe conservation of charge during the processes of induction, conduction, and polarization using different materials such as electroscopes, balloons, rods, fur, silk, and Van de Graaf generators;     (D) analyze, design, and construct series and parallel circuits using schematics and materials such as switches, wires, resistors, lightbulbs, batteries, voltmeters, and ammeters; and     (E) calculate current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel circuits using Ohm's law.   (7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:     (A) calculate and explain work and power in one dimension and identify when work is and is not being done by or on a system;     (B) investigate and calculate mechanical, kinetic, and potential energy of a system;     (C) apply the concept of conservation of energy using the work-energy theorem, energy diagrams, and energy transformation equations, including transformations between kinetic, potential, and thermal energy;     (D) calculate and describe the impulse and momentum of objects in physical systems such as automobile safety features, athletics, and rockets; and     (E) analyze the conservation of momentum qualitatively in inelastic and elastic collisions in one dimension using models, diagrams, and simulations.   (8) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:     (A) examine and describe simple harmonic motion such as masses on springs and pendulums and wave energy propagation in various types of media such as surface waves on a body of water and pulses in ropes;     (B) compare the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves, including electromagnetic and sound waves;     (C) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationships between wave speed, frequency, and wavelength;     (D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, standing wave, the Doppler effect and polarization and superposition; and     (E) compare the different applications of the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio telescopes, microwaves, and x-rays;     (F) investigate the emission spectra produced by various atoms and explain the relationship to the electromagnetic spectrum; and     (G) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens.   (9) Science concepts. The student knows examples of quantum phenomena and their applications. The student is expected to:     (A) describe the photoelectric effect and emission spectra produced by various atoms and how both are explained by the photon model for light;     (B) investigate Malus's Law and describe examples of applications of wave polarization, including 3-D movie glasses and LCD computer screens;     (C) compare and explain how superposition of quantum states is related to the wave-particle duality nature of light; and     (D) give examples of applications of quantum phenomena, including the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum computing, and cybersecurity. Source Note: The provisions of this §112.45 adopted to be effective April 28, 2021, 46 TexReg 2729

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