(A) analyze different types of motion by generating
and interpreting position versus time, velocity versus time, and acceleration
versus time using hand graphing and realtime technology such as motion
detectors, photogates, or digital applications;
(B) define scalar and vector quantities related to
one and twodimensional motion and combine vectors using both graphical
vector addition and the Pythagorean theorem;
(C) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using
equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity,
frames of reference, and acceleration;
(D) describe and analyze acceleration in uniform circular
and horizontal projectile motion in two dimensions using equations;
(E) explain and apply the concepts of equilibrium and
inertia as represented by Newton's first law of motion using relevant
realworld examples such as rockets, satellites, and automobile safety
devices;
(F) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including
tension, friction, normal, gravity, centripetal, and applied forces,
using free body diagrams and the relationship between force and acceleration
as represented by Newton's second law of motion;
(G) illustrate and analyze the simultaneous forces
between two objects as represented in Newton's third law of motion
using free body diagrams and in an experimental design scenario; and
(H) describe and calculate, using scientific notation,
how the magnitude of force between two objects depends on their masses
and the distance between their centers, and predict the effects on
objects in linear and orbiting systems using Newton's law of universal
gravitation.
(6) Science concepts. The student knows the nature
of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:
(A) use scientific notation and predict how the magnitude
of the electric force between two objects depends on their charges
and the distance between their centers using Coulomb's law;
(B) identify and describe examples of electric and
magnetic forces and fields in everyday life such as generators, motors,
and transformers;
(C) investigate and describe conservation of charge
during the processes of induction, conduction, and polarization using
different materials such as electroscopes, balloons, rods, fur, silk,
and Van de Graaf generators;
(D) analyze, design, and construct series and parallel
circuits using schematics and materials such as switches, wires, resistors,
lightbulbs, batteries, voltmeters, and ammeters; and
(E) calculate current through, potential difference
across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements
connected in both series and parallel circuits using Ohm's law.
(7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes
occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation
of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:
(A) calculate and explain work and power in one dimension
and identify when work is and is not being done by or on a system;
(B) investigate and calculate mechanical, kinetic,
and potential energy of a system;
(C) apply the concept of conservation of energy using
the workenergy theorem, energy diagrams, and energy transformation
equations, including transformations between kinetic, potential, and
thermal energy;
(D) calculate and describe the impulse and momentum
of objects in physical systems such as automobile safety features,
athletics, and rockets; and
(E) analyze the conservation of momentum qualitatively
in inelastic and elastic collisions in one dimension using models,
diagrams, and simulations.
(8) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics
and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:
(A) examine and describe simple harmonic motion such
as masses on springs and pendulums and wave energy propagation in
various types of media such as surface waves on a body of water and
pulses in ropes;
(B) compare the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal
waves, including electromagnetic and sound waves;
(C) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves,
including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate
using the relationships between wave speed, frequency, and wavelength;
(D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection,
refraction, diffraction, interference, standing wave, the Doppler
effect and polarization and superposition; and
(E) compare the different applications of the electromagnetic
spectrum, including radio telescopes, microwaves, and xrays;
(F) investigate the emission spectra produced by various
atoms and explain the relationship to the electromagnetic spectrum;
and
(G) describe and predict image formation as a consequence
of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex
lens.
(9) Science concepts. The student knows examples of
quantum phenomena and their applications. The student is expected
to:
(A) describe the photoelectric effect and emission
spectra produced by various atoms and how both are explained by the
photon model for light;
(B) investigate Malus's Law and describe examples of
applications of wave polarization, including 3D movie glasses and
LCD computer screens;
(C) compare and explain how superposition of quantum
states is related to the waveparticle duality nature of light; and
(D) give examples of applications of quantum phenomena,
including the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum computing,
and cybersecurity.
