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RULE §112.49Earth Systems Science, Adopted 2021 (One Credit)

    (A) describe how the composition and structure of the oceans leads to thermohaline circulation and its periodicity;

    (B) model and explain how changes to the composition, structure, and circulation of deep oceans affect thermohaline circulation using data on energy flow, ocean basin structure, and changes in polar ice caps and glaciers; and

    (C) analyze how global surface ocean circulation is the result of wind, tides, the Coriolis effect, water density differences, and the shape of the ocean basins.

  (11) Science concepts. The student knows that dynamic and complex interactions among Earth's systems produce climate and weather. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze how energy transfer through Milankovitch cycles, albedo, and differences in atmospheric and surface absorption are mechanisms of climate;

    (B) describe how Earth's atmosphere is chemically and thermally stratified and how solar radiation interacts with the layers to cause the ozone layer, the jet stream, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and other atmospheric phenomena;

    (C) model how greenhouse gases trap thermal energy near Earth's surface;

    (D) evaluate how the combination of multiple feedback loops alter global climate;

    (E) investigate and analyze evidence for climate changes over Earth's history using paleoclimate data, historical records, and measured greenhouse gas levels;

    (F) explain how the transfer of thermal energy among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere influences weather; and

    (G) describe how changing surface-ocean conditions, including El Niño-Southern Oscillation, affect global weather and climate patterns.

  (12) Science concepts. The student understands how Earth's systems affect and are affected by human activities, including resource use and management. The student is expected to:

    (A) evaluate the impact on humans of natural changes in Earth's systems such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions;

    (B) analyze the impact on humans of naturally occurring extreme weather events such as flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms;

    (C) analyze the natural and anthropogenic factors that affect the severity and frequency of extreme weather events and the hazards associated with these events;

    (D) analyze recent global ocean temperature data to predict the consequences of changing ocean temperature on evaporation, sea level, algal growth, coral bleaching, and biodiversity;

    (E) predict how human use of Texas's naturally occurring resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, soil, solar energy, and wind energy directly and indirectly changes the cycling of matter and energy through Earth's systems; and

    (F) explain the cycling of carbon through different forms among Earth's systems and how biological processes have caused major changes to the carbon cycle in those systems over Earth's history.

  (13) Science concepts. The student explores global policies and careers related to the life cycles of Earth's resources. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze the policies related to resources from discovery to disposal, including economics, health, technological advances, resource type, concentration and location, waste disposal and recycling, mitigation efforts, and environmental impacts; and

    (B) explore global and Texas-based careers that involve the exploration, extraction, production, use, disposal, regulation, and protection of Earth's resources.

Source Note: The provisions of this §112.49 adopted to be effective November 30, 2021, 46 TexReg 8044

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