(B) demonstrate an understanding that scientific theories
are based on physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by
multiple independent researchers;
(C) design and implement investigative procedures;
(D) demonstrate the appropriate use and care of laboratory
equipment;
(E) demonstrate accurate measurement techniques using
precision instruments;
(F) record data using scientific notation and International
System (SI) of units;
(G) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties
in measured data;
(H) organize and evaluate data, including the use of
tables, charts, and graphs;
(I) communicate conclusions supported through various
methods such as laboratory reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers,
journals, summaries, oral reports, or technologybased reports; and
(J) record, express, and manipulate data using graphs,
charts, and equations.
(6) The student demonstrates appropriate safety techniques
in the field and laboratory environments. The student is expected
to:
(A) master relevant safety procedures;
(B) comply with safety guidelines as described in various
manuals, instructions, and regulations;
(C) identify and classify hazardous materials and wastes;
and
(D) make prudent choices in the conservation and use
of resources and the appropriate disposal of hazardous materials and
wastes.
(7) The student describes and applies the laws governing
motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:
(A) generate and interpret relevant equations using
graphs and charts for one and twodimensional motion, including:
(i) using and describing onedimensional equations
and graphical vector addition for displacement, distance, speed, velocity,
average velocity, frames of reference, acceleration, and average acceleration;
(ii) using and describing twodimensional equations
for projectile and circular motion; and
(iii) using and describing vector forces and resolution;
and
(B) describe and calculate the effects of forces on
objects, including law of inertia and impulse and conservation of
momentum, using methods, including freebody force diagrams.
(8) The student describes the nature of forces in the
physical world. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic,
weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;
(B) describe and calculate the magnitude of gravitational
forces between two objects;
(C) describe and calculate the magnitude of electric
forces;
(D) describe the nature and identify everyday examples
of magnetic forces and fields;
(E) describe the nature and identify everyday examples
of electromagnetic forces and fields;
(F) characterize materials as conductors or insulators
based on their electric properties; and
(G) design and construct both series and parallel circuits
and calculate current, potential difference, resistance, and power
of various circuits.
(9) The student describes and applies the laws of the
conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the transformational process between work,
potential energy, and kinetic energy (workenergy theorem);
(B) use examples to analyze and calculate the relationships
among work, kinetic energy, and potential energy;
(C) describe and calculate the mechanical energy of,
the power generated within, the impulse applied to, and the momentum
of a physical system; and
(D) describe and apply the laws of conservation of
energy and conservation of momentum.
(10) The student analyzes the concept of thermal energy.
The student is expected to: explain technological examples such as
solar and wind energy that illustrate the four laws of thermodynamics
and the processes of thermal energy transfer.
(11) The student analyzes the properties of wave motion
and optics. The student is expected to:
(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave
propagation in various types of media;
(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves,
including period, velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength;
(C) investigate and calculate the relationship between
wave speed, frequency, and wavelength;
(D) compare and contrast the characteristics and behaviors
of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic
spectrum, and longitudinal waves, including sound waves;
(E) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection,
refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, polarization, and
the Doppler effect; and
(F) describe and predict image formation as a consequence
of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex
lens.
(12) The student analyzes the concepts of atomic, nuclear,
and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual
nature of light;
(B) compare and explain emission spectra produced by
various atoms;
(C) calculate and describe the applications of massenergy
equivalence;
(D) describe the process of radioactive decay given
an isotope and halflife;
(E) describe the role of massenergy equivalence for
areas such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion; and
(F) explore technology applications of atomic, nuclear,
and quantum phenomena using the standard model such as nuclear stability,
fission, and fusion, nanotechnology, radiation therapy, diagnostic
imaging, semiconductors, superconductors, solar cells, and nuclear
power.
