(B) describe the process of soldering and how it is
used in the assembly of electronic components;
(C) explain the different waveforms and distinctive
characteristics of analog and digital signals;
(D) identify the voltage levels of analog and digital
signals;
(E) determine whether a material is a conductor, an
insulator, or a semiconductor based on its atomic structure;
(F) analyze the three fundamental concepts of voltage,
current, and resistance;
(G) define circuit design software and explain its
purpose;
(H) identify the fundamental building block of sequential
logic;
(I) identify the components of a manufacturer's datasheet,
including a logic gate's general description, connection diagram,
and function table;
(J) categorize integrated circuits by their underlying
circuitry, scale of integration, and packaging style;
(K) describe the advantages and disadvantages of the
various subfamilies of transistortransistor logic (TTL) gates;
(L) explain that a logic gate is depicted by its schematic
symbol, logic expression, and truth table;
(M) evaluate the different functions of input and output
values of combinational and sequential logic;
(N) explain combinational logic designs implemented
with AND gates, OR gates, and INVERTER gates; and
(O) identify the fundamental building block of sequential
logic.
(8) The student understands and uses multiple forms
of ANDORInvert (AOI) logic. The student is expected to:
(A) develop an understanding of the binary number system
and its relationship to the decimal number system as an essential
component in the combinational logic design process;
(B) translate a set of design specifications into a
truth table to describe the behavior of a combinational logic design
by listing all possible input combinations and the desired output
for each;
(C) derive logic expressions from a given truth table;
(D) demonstrate logic expressions in sumofproducts
(SOP) form and productsofsum (POS) form;
(E) explain how all logic expressions, whether simplified
or not, can be implemented using AND gates and INVERTER gates or OR
gates and INVERTER gates; and
(F) apply a formal design process to translate a set
of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit.
(9) The student understands, explains, and applies
NAND and NOR Logic and understands the benefits of using universal
gates. The student is expected to:
(A) apply the Karnaugh Mapping graphical technique
to simplify logic expressions containing two, three, and four variables;
(B) define a "don't care" condition and explain its
significance;
(C) explain why NAND and NOR gates are considered universal
gates;
(D) demonstrate implementation of a combinational logic
expression using only NAND gates or only NOR gates;
(E) discuss the formal design process used for translating
a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic
circuit implemented with NAND or NOR gates; and
(F) explain why combinational logic designs implemented
with NAND gates or NOR gates will typically require fewer integrated
circuits (IC) than AOI equivalent implementations.
(10) The student understands combinational logic systems,
including sevensegment displays, Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates,
and multiplexer/demultiplexer pairs. The student understands the
relative value of various logic approaches. The student is expected
to:
(A) use sevensegment displays used to display the
digits 09 as well as some alpha characters;
(B) identify the two varieties of sevensegment displays;
(C) describe the formal design process used for translating
a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic
circuit;
(D) develop an understanding of the hexadecimal and
octal number systems and their relationships to the decimal number
system;
(E) explain the primary intended purpose of Exclusive
OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) gates;
(F) describe how to accomplish the addition of two
binary numbers of any bit length;
(G) explain when multiplexer/demultiplexer pairs are
most frequently used;
(H) explain the purpose of using demultiplexers in
electronic displays that use multiple sevensegment displays;
(I) identify the most commonly used method for handling
negative numbers in digital electronics;
(J) discuss the use of programmable logic devices and
explain designs for which they are best suited; and
(K) compare and contrast circuits implemented with
programmable logic devices with circuits implemented with discrete
logic.
(11) The student understands and describes multiple
types of sequential logic and various uses of sequential logic. The
student is expected to:
(A) explain the capabilities of flipflop and transparent
latch logic devices;
(B) discuss synchronous and asynchronous inputs of
flipflops and transparent latches;
(C) explore the use of flipflops, including designing
single event detection circuits, data synchronizers, shift registers,
and frequency dividers;
(D) explain how asynchronous counters are characterized
and how they can be implemented;
(E) explore the use of the asynchronous counter method
to implement up counters, down counters, and modulus counters;
(F) explain how synchronous counters are characterized
and how they can be implemented;
(G) explore the use of the synchronous counter method
to implement up counters, down counters, and modulus counters;
(H) describe a state machine;
(I) identify common everyday devices that machines
are used to control such as elevator doors, traffic lights, and combinational
or electronic locks; and
(J) discuss various ways state machines can be implemented.
(12) The student explores microcontrollers, specifically
their usefulness in realworld applications. The student is expected
to:
(A) demonstrate an understanding of the use of flowcharts
as graphical organizers by technicians, computer programmers, engineers,
and other professionals and the benefits of various flowcharting techniques;
(B) develop an understanding of basic programming skills,
including variable declaration, loops, and debugging;
(C) identify everyday products that use microcontrollers
such as robots, garage door openers, traffic lights, and home thermostats;
(D) describe a servo motor;
(E) explore the way microcontrollers sense and respond
to outside stimuli;
(F) explain why digital devices are only relevant if
they can interact with the real world;
(G) explain the importance of digital control devices,
including microcontrollers in controlling mechanical systems; and
(H) demonstrate an understanding that realistic problem
solving with a control system requires the ability to interface analog
inputs and outputs with a digital device.
