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 TITLE 19 EDUCATION PART 2 TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY CHAPTER 127 TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION SUBCHAPTER O SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS RULE §127.748 Digital Electronics (One Credit), Adopted 2015
 (B) describe the process of soldering and how it is used in the assembly of electronic components;     (C) explain the different waveforms and distinctive characteristics of analog and digital signals;     (D) identify the voltage levels of analog and digital signals;     (E) determine whether a material is a conductor, an insulator, or a semiconductor based on its atomic structure;     (F) analyze the three fundamental concepts of voltage, current, and resistance;     (G) define circuit design software and explain its purpose;     (H) identify the fundamental building block of sequential logic;     (I) identify the components of a manufacturer's datasheet, including a logic gate's general description, connection diagram, and function table;     (J) categorize integrated circuits by their underlying circuitry, scale of integration, and packaging style;     (K) describe the advantages and disadvantages of the various sub-families of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) gates;     (L) explain that a logic gate is depicted by its schematic symbol, logic expression, and truth table;     (M) evaluate the different functions of input and output values of combinational and sequential logic;     (N) explain combinational logic designs implemented with AND gates, OR gates, and INVERTER gates; and     (O) identify the fundamental building block of sequential logic.   (8) The student understands and uses multiple forms of AND-OR-Invert (AOI) logic. The student is expected to:     (A) develop an understanding of the binary number system and its relationship to the decimal number system as an essential component in the combinational logic design process;     (B) translate a set of design specifications into a truth table to describe the behavior of a combinational logic design by listing all possible input combinations and the desired output for each;     (C) derive logic expressions from a given truth table;     (D) demonstrate logic expressions in sum-of-products (SOP) form and products-of-sum (POS) form;     (E) explain how all logic expressions, whether simplified or not, can be implemented using AND gates and INVERTER gates or OR gates and INVERTER gates; and     (F) apply a formal design process to translate a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit.   (9) The student understands, explains, and applies NAND and NOR Logic and understands the benefits of using universal gates. The student is expected to:     (A) apply the Karnaugh Mapping graphical technique to simplify logic expressions containing two, three, and four variables;     (B) define a "don't care" condition and explain its significance;     (C) explain why NAND and NOR gates are considered universal gates;     (D) demonstrate implementation of a combinational logic expression using only NAND gates or only NOR gates;     (E) discuss the formal design process used for translating a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit implemented with NAND or NOR gates; and     (F) explain why combinational logic designs implemented with NAND gates or NOR gates will typically require fewer integrated circuits (IC) than AOI equivalent implementations.   (10) The student understands combinational logic systems, including seven-segment displays, Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates, and multiplexer/de-multiplexer pairs. The student understands the relative value of various logic approaches. The student is expected to:     (A) use seven-segment displays used to display the digits 0-9 as well as some alpha characters;     (B) identify the two varieties of seven-segment displays;     (C) describe the formal design process used for translating a set of design specifications into a functional combinational logic circuit;     (D) develop an understanding of the hexadecimal and octal number systems and their relationships to the decimal number system;     (E) explain the primary intended purpose of Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) gates;     (F) describe how to accomplish the addition of two binary numbers of any bit length;     (G) explain when multiplexer/de-multiplexer pairs are most frequently used;     (H) explain the purpose of using de-multiplexers in electronic displays that use multiple seven-segment displays;     (I) identify the most commonly used method for handling negative numbers in digital electronics;     (J) discuss the use of programmable logic devices and explain designs for which they are best suited; and     (K) compare and contrast circuits implemented with programmable logic devices with circuits implemented with discrete logic.   (11) The student understands and describes multiple types of sequential logic and various uses of sequential logic. The student is expected to:     (A) explain the capabilities of flip-flop and transparent latch logic devices;     (B) discuss synchronous and asynchronous inputs of flip-flops and transparent latches;     (C) explore the use of flip-flops, including designing single event detection circuits, data synchronizers, shift registers, and frequency dividers;     (D) explain how asynchronous counters are characterized and how they can be implemented;     (E) explore the use of the asynchronous counter method to implement up counters, down counters, and modulus counters;     (F) explain how synchronous counters are characterized and how they can be implemented;     (G) explore the use of the synchronous counter method to implement up counters, down counters, and modulus counters;     (H) describe a state machine;     (I) identify common everyday devices that machines are used to control such as elevator doors, traffic lights, and combinational or electronic locks; and     (J) discuss various ways state machines can be implemented.   (12) The student explores microcontrollers, specifically their usefulness in real-world applications. The student is expected to:     (A) demonstrate an understanding of the use of flowcharts as graphical organizers by technicians, computer programmers, engineers, and other professionals and the benefits of various flowcharting techniques;     (B) develop an understanding of basic programming skills, including variable declaration, loops, and debugging;     (C) identify everyday products that use microcontrollers such as robots, garage door openers, traffic lights, and home thermostats;     (D) describe a servo motor;     (E) explore the way microcontrollers sense and respond to outside stimuli;     (F) explain why digital devices are only relevant if they can interact with the real world;     (G) explain the importance of digital control devices, including microcontrollers in controlling mechanical systems; and     (H) demonstrate an understanding that realistic problem solving with a control system requires the ability to interface analog inputs and outputs with a digital device. Source Note: The provisions of this §127.748 adopted to be effective April 7, 2022, 47 TexReg 1677

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