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RULE §127.652Forensic Science (One Credit), Adopted 2021

    (D) conduct a primary and secondary systematic search of a simulated crime scene for physical evidence utilizing search patterns such as spiral, line, grid, and zone;

    (E) document a crime scene using photographic or audiovisual equipment;

    (F) generate a physical or digital crime scene sketch, including coordinates or measurements from fixed points, compass directions, scale of proportion, legend-key, heading, and title block; and

    (G) demonstrate proper techniques for collecting, packaging, and preserving physical evidence found at a crime scene while maintaining documentation, including chain of custody.

  (10) The student analyzes fingerprint evidence in forensic science. The student is expected to:

    (A) compare the three major fingerprint patterns of arches, loops, and whorls;

    (B) identify the minutiae of fingerprints, including bifurcations, ending ridges, dots, short ridges, and enclosures/islands;

    (C) distinguish between patent, plastic, and latent impressions;

    (D) perform procedures for developing and lifting latent prints on nonporous surfaces using cyanoacrylate and fingerprint powders;

    (E) perform procedures for developing latent prints using chemical processes on porous and adhesive surfaces with chemicals such as ninhydrin and crystal violet and documenting the results via photography; and

    (F) explain the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) and describe the implications of Next Generation Identification (NGI) systems.

  (11) The student collects and analyzes impression evidence in forensic science. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze the class and individual characteristics of tool mark impressions and the recovery and documentation of surface characteristics such as wood or metal;

    (B) analyze the class and individual characteristics of footwear impressions and the recovery and documentation of surface characteristics such as soil or organic plant material;

    (C) analyze the class and individual characteristics of tire tread impressions and the recovery documentation of surface characteristics such as soil or organic plant material; and

    (D) compare impression evidence collected at a simulated crime scene with the known impression.

  (12) The student recognizes the methods to process and analyze hair and fibers found in a crime scene. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate how to collect hair and fiber evidence at a simulated crime scene;

    (B) perform the analysis of hair and fiber evidence using forensic science methods such as microscopy and flame testing;

    (C) compare the microscopic characteristics of human hair and non-human hair, including medulla, pigment distribution, and scales;

    (D) describe and illustrate the different microscopic characteristics used to determine the origin of a human hair sample; and

    (E) differentiate between natural and synthetic fibers.

  (13) The student recognizes the methods to process and analyze glass evidence. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate how to collect and preserve glass evidence;

    (B) compare the composition of various types of glass such as soda lime, borosilicate, leaded, and tempered;

    (C) determine the direction of a projectile by examining glass fractures; and

    (D) define refractive index and explain how it is used in forensic glass analysis.

  (14) The student explores principles of questioned document analysis in the physical and digital form. The student is expected to:

    (A) research and explain different types of examinations performed on digital and physical evidence in a forensic laboratory such as digital data recovery, counterfeiting, ink, and paper analysis;

    (B) investigate and describe the security features incorporated in U.S. and foreign currency to prevent counterfeiting; and

    (C) perform handwriting comparisons of an unknown sample with exemplars by analyzing characteristics such as letter, line, and formatting.

  (15) The student evaluates firearms and ballistics evidence. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe the mechanism of modern firearms such as long guns and handguns;

    (B) identify the components and characteristics of bullet and cartridge cases;

    (C) describe the composition of and method of analysis for gunshot residue and primer residue;

    (D) conduct and calculate trajectory analysis of bullet strikes within a simulated crime scene; and

    (E) identify and recognize the type of information available through the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network.

  (16) The student identifies controlled and illicit substances. The student is expected to:

    (A) differentiate between toxicological analysis and controlled substance analysis as they relate to the method of collection and impact on the body;

    (B) classify controlled substances using the schedules under the Controlled Substances Act; and

    (C) identify unknown substances using presumptive and confirmatory procedures such as microchemical/color indicating reagent field tests, microscopy, chromatography, and spectrophotometry.

  (17) The student explores toxicology in forensic science. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the absorption, distribution, metabolization, and elimination of toxins such as alcohol, prescription drugs, controlled substances, and carbon monoxide through the human body;

    (B) describe presumptive and confirmatory laboratory procedures as they relate to toxicological analysis such as head space analysis, solid-phase extractions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), color tests, and immunoassays;

    (C) interpret results from presumptive and confirmatory laboratory procedures, including GC/MS and their implications; and

    (D) explain the precautions necessary in the forensic laboratory for proper preservation of biological samples.

  (18) The student analyzes blood spatter at a simulated crime scene. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze blood stain patterns based on surface type and appearance such as size, shape, distribution and location in order to determine the mechanism by which the patterns are created;

    (B) explain the methods of chemically enhancing latent blood patterns using reagents such as Blue Star or Amido Black; and

    (C) conduct and interpret blood presumptive tests for various biologicals such as phenolphthalein and tetramethylbenzidine (TMB).

  (19) The student analyzes the foundations and methodologies surrounding the processing of biological evidence for the purpose of identification. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify different types of biological samples and practice proper collection and preservation techniques;

    (B) identify the red blood cell antigens and antibodies as they relate to human blood types;

    (C) describe the structure of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule and its function;

    (D) explain the analytical procedure for generating a DNA profile, including extraction, quantification, amplification, and capillary electrophoresis;

    (E) explain the different methodologies surrounding the different types of DNA analysis such as short tandem repeats (STRs), Y-STRs, mitochondrial DNA, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs);

    (F) interpret the components of an electropherogram; and

    (G) explore the databasing systems associated with DNA such as Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) and ancestry-based databasing systems.

  (20) The student explores the principles surrounding medicolegal death investigations. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the principles of rigor, algor, and livor mortis and how they apply to deceased persons;

    (B) differentiate between the types of wound patterns such as lacerations and blunt force trauma resulting from stabbings, bludgeoning, gunshots, and strangulations;

    (C) determine cause and manner of death from an autopsy report obtained through resources such as case studies, simulated autopsies, and dissections; and

    (D) determine the approximate time of death using entomology.

  (21) The student explores principles of anthropology and odontology relevant to forensic science. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify the major bones of the human skeletal system;

    (B) compare composition and structure of human and non-human bones;

    (C) describe the collection and preservation methods for bone evidence;

    (D) explain the characteristics of the human skeletal system indicative of specific biological sex and approximate range of age and height; and

    (E) explain how human remains are identified through dental records such as dentures, x-rays, and implants.

Source Note: The provisions of this §127.652 adopted to be effective April 26, 2022, 47 TexReg 2166

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