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RULE §127.779Biotechnology I (One Credit), Adopted 2021

    (C) compare and contrast the different applications used in biotechnology laboratory procedures of each sector.

  (8) The student understands the role of genetics in the biotechnology industry. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain terms related to molecular biology, including nucleic acids, nitrogen bases, nucleotides, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, amino acids, transcription, translation, polymerase, and protein synthesis;

    (B) compare and contrast the structures and functions of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA), including nitrogen bases, nucleotides, the helical nature of DNA, and hydrogen bonding between purines and pyrimidines;

    (C) distinguish between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and their gamete sources;

    (D) describe the DNA replication process in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, including leading and lagging strands and Okazaki fragments;

    (E) illustrate the process of protein synthesis, including ribosomal subunits and the role of tRNA;

    (F) describe the structures and functions of proteins, including three-dimensional folding, enzymes, and antibodies;

    (G) explain the molecular structures of genes, including enhancers, promoters, exons, introns, and coding regions;

    (H) describe the different types of mutations, including inversions, deletions, duplications, and substitutions;

    (I) explain the effects of mutation types on phenotype and gene function; and

    (J) describe unique elements of the molecular structure of a chromosome such as short tandem repeats (STR), transposons, and methylation and acetylation of DNA.

  (9) The student analyzes the importance of recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe the fundamental steps in recombinant DNA technology;

    (B) explain how recombinant DNA technology such as nuclear transfer cloning is used to clone genes and create recombinant proteins;

    (C) explain the role of tissue cultures in genetic modification procedures;

    (D) describe plant- and animal-tissue culture procedures;

    (E) compare and contrast growing conditions for plant and animal tissue cultures;

    (F) explain the role of restriction enzymes; and

    (G) distinguish between vectors commonly used in biotechnology for DNA insertion, including plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and bacteriophages.

  (10) The student examines federal, state, local, and industry regulations as related to biotechnology. The student is expected to:

    (A) discuss the relationship between the local, state, and federal agencies responsible for regulation of the biotechnology industry such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and

    (B) analyze policies and procedures used in the biotechnology industry such as quality assurance, standard operating procedures (SOPs), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality systems.

  (11) The student performs biotechnology laboratory procedures. The student is expected to:

    (A) measure volumes and weights to industry standards with accuracy and precision;

    (B) analyze data and perform calculations and statistical analysis as it relates to biotechnology laboratory experiments;

    (C) demonstrate proficiency in pipetting techniques;

    (D) identify microorganisms using staining methods such as the Gram stain, methylene-blue stain, and acid-fast staining;

    (E) prepare a restriction digest, isolate nucleic acids, and evaluate results using techniques such as gel and capillary electrophoresis, Northern blot analysis, and Southern blot analysis;

    (F) explain the importance of media components to the outcome of cultures;

    (G) isolate, maintain, and store microbial cultures safely;

    (H) prepare seed inoculum; and

    (I) perform plating techniques such as streak plating, spread plating, and the Kirby-Bauer method.

  (12) The student prepares solutions and reagents for the biotechnology laboratory. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate aseptic techniques for establishing and maintaining a sterile work area;

    (B) prepare, dispense, and monitor physical properties of stock reagents, buffers, media, and solutions;

    (C) calculate and prepare a dilution series; and

    (D) determine optimum conditions of reagents for experimentation.

  (13) The student conducts quality-control analysis while performing biotechnology laboratory procedures. The student is expected to:

    (A) perform validation testing on laboratory reagents and equipment; and

    (B) analyze data and perform calculations and statistical analysis on results of quality-control samples.

Source Note: The provisions of this §127.779 adopted to be effective April 26, 2022, 47 TexReg 2166

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