(D) define voltage, current, and resistance and calculate
each quantity in series, parallel, and combination electrical circuits
using Ohm's law.
(10) The student understands system energy requirements
and how energy sources can be combined to convert energy into useful
forms. The student understands the relationships between material
conductivity, resistance, and geometry in order to calculate energy
transfer and determine power loss and efficiency. The student is expected
to:
(A) explain the purpose of energy management;
(B) evaluate system energy requirements in order to
select the proper energy source;
(C) explain and design how multiple energy sources
can be combined to convert energy into useful forms;
(D) describe how hydrogen fuel cells create electricity
and heat and how solar cells create electricity;
(E) measure and analyze how thermal energy is transferred
via convection, conduction, and radiation;
(F) analyze how thermal energy transfer is affected
by conduction, thermal resistance values, convection, and radiation;
and
(G) calculate resistance, efficiency, and power transfer
in power transmission and distribution applications for various material
properties.
(11) The student understands the interaction of forces
acting on a body and performs calculations related to structural design.
The student is expected to:
(A) illustrate, calculate, and experimentally measure
all forces acting upon a given body;
(B) locate the centroid of structural members mathematically
or experimentally;
(C) calculate moment of inertia of structural members;
(D) define and calculate static equilibrium;
(E) differentiate between scalar and vector quantities;
(F) identify properties of a vector, including magnitude
and direction;
(G) calculate the X and Y components given a vector;
(H) calculate moment forces given a specified axis;
(I) calculate unknown forces using equations of equilibrium;
and
(J) calculate external and internal forces in a statically
determinate truss using translational and rotational equilibrium equations.
(12) The student understands material properties and
the importance of choosing appropriate materials for design. The student
is expected to:
(A) conduct investigative nondestructive material
property tests on selected common household products;
(B) calculate and measure the weight, volume, mass,
density, and surface area of selected common household products; and
(C) identify the manufacturing processes used to create
selected common household products.
(13) The student uses material testing to determine
a product's function and performance. The student is expected to:
(A) use a design process and mathematical formulas
to solve and document design problems;
(B) obtain measurements of material samples such as
length, width, height, and mass;
(C) use material testing to determine a product's reliability,
safety, and predictability in function;
(D) identify and calculate test sample material properties
using a stressstrain curve; and
(E) identify and compare measurements and calculations
of sample material properties such as elastic range, proportional
limit, modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, resilience, yield point,
plastic deformation, ultimate strength, failure, and ductility using
stressstrain data points.
(14) The student understands that control systems are
designed to provide consentient process control and reliability and
uses computer software to create flowcharts and control system operating
programs. The student is expected to:
(A) create detailed flowcharts using a computer software
application;
(B) create control system operating programs using
computer software;
(C) create system control programs that use flowchart
logic;
(D) select appropriate input and output devices based
on the need of a technological system; and
(E) judge between open and closedloop systems in
order to select the most appropriate system for a given technological
problem.
(15) The student demonstrates an understanding of fluid
power systems and calculates values in a variety of systems. The student
is expected to:
(A) identify and explain basic components and functions
of fluid power devices;
(B) differentiate between pneumatic and hydraulic systems
and between hydrodynamic and hydrostatic systems;
(C) use Pascal's Law to calculate values in a fluid
power system;
(D) distinguish between gauge pressure and absolute
pressure and between temperature and absolute temperature;
(E) calculate values in a pneumatic system using the
ideal gas laws; and
(F) calculate and experiment with flow rate, flow velocity,
and mechanical advantage in a hydraulic system model.
(16) The student demonstrates an understanding of statistics
and applies the concepts to realworld engineering design problems.
The student is expected to:
(A) calculate and test the theoretical probability
that an event will occur;
(B) calculate the experimental frequency distribution
of an event occurring;
(C) apply the Bernoulli process to events that only
have two distinct possible outcomes;
(D) apply AND, OR, and NOT logic to solve complex probability
scenarios;
(E) apply Bayes's theorem to calculate the probability
of multiple events occurring;
(F) calculate the central tendencies of a data array,
including mean, median, and mode;
(G) calculate data variations, including range, standard
deviation, and variance; and
(H) create and explain a histogram to illustrate frequency
distribution.
(17) The student demonstrates an understanding of kinematics
in one and two dimensions and applies the concepts to realworld engineering
design problems. The student is expected to:
(A) calculate distance, displacement, speed, velocity,
and acceleration from data;
(B) calculate experimentally the acceleration due to
gravity given data from a freefall device;
(C) calculate the X and Y components of an object in
projectile motion; and
(D) determine and test the angle needed to launch a
projectile a specific range given the projectile's initial velocity.
