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 TITLE 19 EDUCATION PART 2 TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY CHAPTER 127 TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION SUBCHAPTER O SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS RULE §127.782 Engineering Science (One Credit), Adopted 2021
 (D) define voltage, current, and resistance and calculate each quantity in series, parallel, and combination electrical circuits using Ohm's law.   (10) The student understands system energy requirements and how energy sources can be combined to convert energy into useful forms. The student understands the relationships between material conductivity, resistance, and geometry in order to calculate energy transfer and determine power loss and efficiency. The student is expected to:     (A) explain the purpose of energy management;     (B) evaluate system energy requirements in order to select the proper energy source;     (C) explain and design how multiple energy sources can be combined to convert energy into useful forms;     (D) describe how hydrogen fuel cells create electricity and heat and how solar cells create electricity;     (E) measure and analyze how thermal energy is transferred via convection, conduction, and radiation;     (F) analyze how thermal energy transfer is affected by conduction, thermal resistance values, convection, and radiation; and     (G) calculate resistance, efficiency, and power transfer in power transmission and distribution applications for various material properties.   (11) The student understands the interaction of forces acting on a body and performs calculations related to structural design. The student is expected to:     (A) illustrate, calculate, and experimentally measure all forces acting upon a given body;     (B) locate the centroid of structural members mathematically or experimentally;     (C) calculate moment of inertia of structural members;     (D) define and calculate static equilibrium;     (E) differentiate between scalar and vector quantities;     (F) identify properties of a vector, including magnitude and direction;     (G) calculate the X and Y components given a vector;     (H) calculate moment forces given a specified axis;     (I) calculate unknown forces using equations of equilibrium; and     (J) calculate external and internal forces in a statically determinate truss using translational and rotational equilibrium equations.   (12) The student understands material properties and the importance of choosing appropriate materials for design. The student is expected to:     (A) conduct investigative non-destructive material property tests on selected common household products;     (B) calculate and measure the weight, volume, mass, density, and surface area of selected common household products; and     (C) identify the manufacturing processes used to create selected common household products.   (13) The student uses material testing to determine a product's function and performance. The student is expected to:     (A) use a design process and mathematical formulas to solve and document design problems;     (B) obtain measurements of material samples such as length, width, height, and mass;     (C) use material testing to determine a product's reliability, safety, and predictability in function;     (D) identify and calculate test sample material properties using a stress-strain curve; and     (E) identify and compare measurements and calculations of sample material properties such as elastic range, proportional limit, modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, resilience, yield point, plastic deformation, ultimate strength, failure, and ductility using stress-strain data points.   (14) The student understands that control systems are designed to provide consentient process control and reliability and uses computer software to create flowcharts and control system operating programs. The student is expected to:     (A) create detailed flowcharts using a computer software application;     (B) create control system operating programs using computer software;     (C) create system control programs that use flowchart logic;     (D) select appropriate input and output devices based on the need of a technological system; and     (E) judge between open- and closed-loop systems in order to select the most appropriate system for a given technological problem.   (15) The student demonstrates an understanding of fluid power systems and calculates values in a variety of systems. The student is expected to:     (A) identify and explain basic components and functions of fluid power devices;     (B) differentiate between pneumatic and hydraulic systems and between hydrodynamic and hydrostatic systems;     (C) use Pascal's Law to calculate values in a fluid power system;     (D) distinguish between gauge pressure and absolute pressure and between temperature and absolute temperature;     (E) calculate values in a pneumatic system using the ideal gas laws; and     (F) calculate and experiment with flow rate, flow velocity, and mechanical advantage in a hydraulic system model.   (16) The student demonstrates an understanding of statistics and applies the concepts to real-world engineering design problems. The student is expected to:     (A) calculate and test the theoretical probability that an event will occur;     (B) calculate the experimental frequency distribution of an event occurring;     (C) apply the Bernoulli process to events that only have two distinct possible outcomes;     (D) apply AND, OR, and NOT logic to solve complex probability scenarios;     (E) apply Bayes's theorem to calculate the probability of multiple events occurring;     (F) calculate the central tendencies of a data array, including mean, median, and mode;     (G) calculate data variations, including range, standard deviation, and variance; and     (H) create and explain a histogram to illustrate frequency distribution.   (17) The student demonstrates an understanding of kinematics in one and two dimensions and applies the concepts to real-world engineering design problems. The student is expected to:     (A) calculate distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration from data;     (B) calculate experimentally the acceleration due to gravity given data from a free-fall device;     (C) calculate the X and Y components of an object in projectile motion; and     (D) determine and test the angle needed to launch a projectile a specific range given the projectile's initial velocity. Source Note: The provisions of this §127.782 adopted to be effective April 26, 2022, 47 TexReg 2166

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