(A) identify advantages and limitations of models such
as their size, scale, properties, and materials;
(B) analyze data by identifying significant statistical
features, patterns, sources of error, and limitations;
(C) use mathematical calculations to assess quantitative
relationships in data; and
(D) evaluate experimental and engineering designs.
(4) The student develops evidence-based explanations
and communicates findings, conclusions, and proposed solutions. The
student is expected to:
(A) develop explanations and propose solutions supported
by data and models and consistent with scientific ideas, principles,
and theories;
(B) communicate explanations and solutions individually
and collaboratively in a variety of settings and formats; and
(C) engage respectfully in scientific argumentation
using applied scientific explanations and empirical evidence.
(5) The student knows the contributions of scientists
and engineers and recognizes the importance of scientific research
and innovation on society. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations
and solutions by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and
experimental and observational testing so as to encourage critical
thinking by the student;
(B) relate the impact of past and current research
on scientific thought and society, including research methodology,
cost-benefit analysis, and contributions of diverse scientists and
engineers as related to the content; and
(C) research and explore resources such as museums,
libraries, professional organizations, private companies, online platforms,
and mentors employed in a STEM field.
(6) The student investigates engineering-related fields
and career opportunities. The student is expected to:
(A) differentiate between engineering and engineering
technology;
(B) compare the roles or job descriptions for career
opportunities in the fields of pure science, engineering, and engineering
technology;
(C) identify and differentiate between the different
engineering disciplines; and
(D) demonstrate appropriate oral, written, and visual
forms of technical communication.
(7) The student demonstrates an understanding of design
problems and works individually and as a member of a team to solve
design problems. The student is expected to:
(A) solve design problems individually and in a team;
(B) create solutions to existing problems using a design
process;
(C) use a design brief to identify problem specifications
and establish project constraints;
(D) use communication to achieve a desired goal within
a team; and
(E) work as a member of a team to conduct research
to develop a knowledge base, stimulate creative ideas, and make informed
decisions.
(8) The student understands mechanisms, including simple
and compound machines, and performs calculations related to mechanical
advantage, drive ratios, work, and power. The student is expected
to:
(A) explain the purpose and operation of components,
including gears, sprockets, pulley systems, and simple machines;
(B) explain how components, including gears, sprockets,
pulley systems, and simple machines, make up mechanisms;
(C) distinguish between the six simple machines and
their attributes and components;
(D) measure forces and distances related to a mechanism;
(E) calculate work and power in mechanical systems;
(F) determine experimentally the efficiency of mechanical
systems; and
(G) calculate mechanical advantage and drive ratios
of mechanisms.
(9) The student understands energy sources, energy
conversion, and circuits and performs calculations related to work
and power. The student is expected to:
(A) identify and categorize energy sources as nonrenewable,
renewable, or inexhaustible;
(B) define and calculate work and power in electrical
systems;
(C) calculate and explain how power in a system converts
energy from electrical to mechanical; and
(D) define voltage, current, and resistance and calculate
each quantity in series, parallel, and combination electrical circuits
using Ohm's law.
(10) The student understands system energy requirements
and how energy sources can be combined to convert energy into useful
forms. The student understands the relationships between material
conductivity, resistance, and geometry in order to calculate energy
transfer and determine power loss and efficiency. The student is expected
to:
(A) explain the purpose of energy management;
(B) evaluate system energy requirements in order to
select the proper energy source;
(C) explain and design how multiple energy sources
can be combined to convert energy into useful forms;
(D) describe how hydrogen fuel cells create electricity
and heat and how solar cells create electricity;
(E) measure and analyze how thermal energy is transferred
via convection, conduction, and radiation;
(F) analyze how thermal energy transfer is affected
by conduction, thermal resistance values, convection, and radiation;
and
(G) calculate resistance, efficiency, and power transfer
in power transmission and distribution applications for various material
properties.
(11) The student understands the interaction of forces
acting on a body and performs calculations related to structural design.
The student is expected to:
(A) illustrate, calculate, and experimentally measure
all forces acting upon a given body;
(B) locate the centroid of structural members mathematically
or experimentally;
(C) calculate moment of inertia of structural members;
(D) define and calculate static equilibrium;
(E) differentiate between scalar and vector quantities;
(F) identify properties of a vector, including magnitude
and direction;
(G) calculate the X and Y components given a vector;
(H) calculate moment forces given a specified axis;
(I) calculate unknown forces using equations of equilibrium;
and
(J) calculate external and internal forces in a statically
determinate truss using translational and rotational equilibrium equations.
(12) The student understands material properties and
the importance of choosing appropriate materials for design. The student
is expected to:
(A) conduct investigative non-destructive material
property tests on selected common household products;
(B) calculate and measure the weight, volume, mass,
density, and surface area of selected common household products; and
(C) identify the manufacturing processes used to create
selected common household products.
(13) The student uses material testing to determine
a product's function and performance. The student is expected to:
(A) use a design process and mathematical formulas
to solve and document design problems;
(B) obtain measurements of material samples such as
length, width, height, and mass;
(C) use material testing to determine a product's reliability,
safety, and predictability in function;
(D) identify and calculate test sample material properties
using a stress-strain curve; and
(E) identify and compare measurements and calculations
of sample material properties such as elastic range, proportional
limit, modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, resilience, yield point,
plastic deformation, ultimate strength, failure, and ductility using
stress-strain data points.
(14) The student understands that control systems are
designed to provide consentient process control and reliability and
uses computer software to create flowcharts and control system operating
programs. The student is expected to:
(A) create detailed flowcharts using a computer software
application;
(B) create control system operating programs using
computer software;
(C) create system control programs that use flowchart
logic;
(D) select appropriate input and output devices based
on the need of a technological system; and
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