|(a) Introduction. (1) In order to have full participation in the civic process, students must have a good understanding of public dialogue. Students must learn the concepts and skills related to preparing and presenting public messages and to analyzing and evaluating the messages of others. Within this process, students will gain skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking and will examine areas such as invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Public Speaking I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Rhetoric. The student traces the development of the rhetorical perspective. The student is expected to: (A) recognize the influence of classical rhetoric in shaping Western thought; (B) explain and use the classical rhetorical canons of invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery; (C) analyze how modern public address influences public opinion and policy in a democratic republic; (D) analyze the ethical responsibilities that accompany freedom of speech; (E) develop and use critical, deliberative, empathic, and appreciative listening skills to analyze and evaluate speeches; and (F) apply knowledge and understanding of rhetoric to analyze and evaluate oral or written speeches. (2) Speech forms. The student recognizes and analyzes varied speech forms. The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the traditional elements of speech form, including introduction, body, and conclusion; (B) identify and analyze logical patterns of organization for specific speech forms; (C) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to inform; (D) identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to persuade, including propositions of fact, value, problem, and/or policy; (E) identify and analyze characteristics of speeches for special occasions; and (F) analyze and evaluate the rhetorical elements in models of speeches that inform, persuade, or inspire. (3) Invention. The student plans speeches. The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the audience and occasion as a basis for choosing speech strategies; (B) select and limit topics for speeches considering his/her own interests, timeliness, and the importance of the topic; (C) select and limit purposes for speeches; (D) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; and (E) analyze oral and written speech models to evaluate the topic, purpose, audience, and occasion. (4) Organization. The student organizes speeches. The student is expected to: (A) apply knowledge of speech form to organize and design speeches; (B) organize speeches effectively for specific topics, purposes, audiences, and occasions; (C) choose logical patterns of organization for bodies of speech; (D) prepare outlines reflecting logical organization; and (E) analyze and evaluate the organization of oral or written speech models. (5) Proofs and appeals. The student uses valid proofs and appeals in speeches. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the implications of the audience, occasion, topic, and purpose as a basis for choosing proofs and appeals for speeches; (B) choose logical proofs and appeals that meet standard tests of evidence; (C) use logical, ethical, and emotional proofs and appeals to support and clarify claims in speeches; (D) choose proofs and appeals that enhance a specific topic, purpose, and tone; (E) choose and develop appropriate devices for introductions and conclusions; (F) choose or produce effective visual supports; and (G) analyze and evaluate the proofs and appeals used in oral or written speech models. (6) Style. The student develops skills in using oral language in public speeches. The student is expected to: (A) distinguish between oral and written language styles; (B) write manuscripts to facilitate language choices and enhance oral style; (C) use rhetorical and stylistic devices to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect; (D) use informal, standard, and technical language appropriately; (E) employ previews, transitions, summaries, signposts, and other appropriate rhetorical strategies to enhance clarity; and (F) evaluate a speaker's style in oral or written speech models. (7) Delivery. The student uses appropriate strategies for rehearsing and presenting speeches. The student is expected to: (A) employ techniques and strategies to reduce communication apprehension, develop self-confidence, and facilitate command of information and ideas; (B) rehearse and employ a variety of delivery strategies; (C) develop verbal, vocal, and physical skills to enhance presentations; (D) use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, visual aids, and/or electronic devices; and (E) interact with audiences appropriately. (8) Evaluation. The student analyzes and evaluates speeches. The student is expected to: (A) use critical, deliberative, and appreciative listening skills to evaluate speeches; and (B) critique speeches using knowledge of rhetorical principles.