|(a) Introduction. (1) Understanding and developing skills in communication are fundamental to all other learning and to all levels of human interaction. For successful participation in professional and social life, students must develop effective communication skills. Rapidly expanding technologies and changing social and corporate systems demand that students send clear verbal messages, choose effective nonverbal behaviors, listen for desired results, and apply valid critical-thinking and problem-solving processes. Students enrolled in Communication Applications will be expected to identify, analyze, develop, and evaluate communication skills needed for professional and social success in interpersonal situations, group interactions, and personal and professional presentations. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Communication Applications are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Communication process. The student demonstrates knowledge of various communication processes in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to: (A) explain the importance of effective communication skills in professional and social contexts; (B) identify the components of the communication process and their functions; (C) identify standards for making appropriate communication choices for self, listener, occasion, and task; (D) identify the characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using informal, standard, and technical language appropriately; (E) identify types of nonverbal communication and their effects; (F) recognize the importance of effective nonverbal strategies such as appearance, a firm handshake, direct eye contact, and appropriate use of space and distance; (G) identify the components of the listening process; (H) identify specific kinds of listening such as critical, deliberative, and empathic; (I) recognize the importance of gathering and using accurate and complete information as a basis for making communication decisions; (J) identify and analyze ethical and social responsibilities of communicators; and (K) recognize and analyze appropriate channels of communication in organizations. (2) Interpersonal. The student uses appropriate interpersonal communication strategies in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to: (A) identify types of professional and social relationships, their importance, and the purposes they serve; (B) employ appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to enhance interpersonal relationships; (C) use communication management skills to develop appropriate assertiveness, tact, and courtesy; (D) use professional etiquette and protocol in situations such as making introductions, speaking on the telephone, and offering and receiving criticism; (E) send clear and appropriate requests, provide clear and accurate directions, ask appropriate and purposeful questions, and respond appropriately to the requests, directions, and questions of others; (F) participate appropriately in conversations; (G) communicate effectively in interviews; (H) identify and use appropriate strategies for dealing with differences, including gender, ethnicity, and age; and (I) analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of one's own and others' communication. (3) Group communication. The student communicates effectively in groups in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to: (A) identify kinds of groups, their importance, and the purposes they serve; (B) analyze group dynamics and processes for participating effectively in groups; (C) identify and analyze the roles of group members and their influence on group dynamics; (D) demonstrate understanding of group roles and their impact on group effectiveness; (E) use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to promote group effectiveness; (F) identify and analyze leadership styles; (G) use effective communication strategies in leadership roles; (H) use effective communication strategies for solving problems, managing conflicts, and building consensus in groups; and (I) analyze the participation and contributions of group members and evaluate group effectiveness. (4) Presentations. The student makes and evaluates formal and informal professional presentations. The student is expected to: (A) analyze the audience, occasion, and purpose when designing presentations; (B) determine specific topics and purposes for presentations; (C) research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; (D) use effective strategies to organize and outline presentations; (E) use information effectively to support and clarify points in presentations; (F) prepare scripts or notes for presentations; (G) prepare and use visual or auditory aids, including technology, to enhance presentations; (H) use appropriate techniques to manage communication apprehension, build self-confidence, and gain command of the information; (I) use effective verbal and nonverbal strategies in presentations; (J) make group presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience; (K) make individual presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience; (L) participate in question-and-answer sessions following presentations; (M) apply critical-listening strategies to evaluate presentations; and (N) evaluate effectiveness of his/her own presentation.