|(a) Introduction. (1) Controversial issues arise in aspects of personal, social public, and professional life in modern society. Debate and argumentation are widely used to make decisions and reduce conflict. Students who develop skills in argumentation and debate become interested in current issues, develop sound critical thinking, and sharpen communication skills. They acquire life-long skills for intelligently approaching controversial issues. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Debate I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) Role in society. The student examines the historical and contemporary contributions of debate in decision-making and democratic processes. The student is expected to: (A) identify the historical and contemporary use of debate in social, political, and religious arenas; (B) examine the role of the forensic progression of discussion, persuasion, and debate in dealing with controversial issues; and (C) recognize the role of argumentation and debate as an effective means of analyzing issues, discovering truth, finding solutions to problems, and understanding opposing viewpoints. (2) Analysis of issues. The student analyzes controversial issues. The student is expected to: (A) use appropriate standards to analyze and interpret propositions of fact, value, problem, and policy; (B) accurately phrase and define debatable propositions; (C) analyze and evaluate propositions and related issues presented in academic and public settings; and (D) recognize, analyze, and use various debate formats to support propositions. (3) Propositions of value. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of value. The student is expected to: (A) explain the concept of a value as it applies to a debate; (B) analyze the role of value assumptions in formulating and evaluating argument; (C) analyze the works of classical and contemporary philosophers; (D) apply various standards for evaluating propositions of value; (E) apply value assumptions and/or classical and contemporary philosophies appropriately in formulating arguments; (F) develop and use valid approaches to construct affirmative and negative cases; (G) use valid proofs appropriately to support claims in propositions of value; (H) construct briefs for value propositions; and (I) apply voting criteria to value propositions. (4) Propositions of policy. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of policy. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate implications of stock issues in affirmative and negative case construction and refutation; (B) use and evaluate a variety of valid strategies to construct affirmative and negative cases; (C) construct debate briefs for policy propositions; and (D) analyze and adapt approaches to accommodate a variety of judging paradigms. (5) Logic. The student applies critical thinking, logic, and reasoning in debate. The student is expected to: (A) analyze and create arguments using various forms of logic such as inductive and deductive reasoning, syllogisms, traditional models of logic, and cause-effect; (B) identify fallacies in reasoning and apply standards of validity and relevancy in analyzing and constructing argument; and (C) analyze the role of value assumptions in personal, social, and political conflicts. (6) Proof. The student utilizes research and proof in debate. The student is expected to: (A) locate and use a variety of reliable technological and print sources; (B) identify and apply standard tests of evidence for choosing appropriate logical proofs; (C) demonstrate skill in recording and organizing information; and (D) utilize ethical guidelines for debate research and use of evidence. (7) Case construction. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of debate case construction. The student is expected to: (A) identify the roles and responsibilities of the affirmative and negative positions; (B) explain and apply the distinctive approaches to prima facie case construction; and (C) use a variety of approaches to construct logical affirmative and negative cases. (8) Refutation. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of argumentation and refutation. The student is expected to: (A) listen critically to formulate responses; (B) take accurate notes during argumentation such as flow a debate; (C) analyze and apply a variety of approaches for refuting and defending arguments; (D) recognize and use effective cross-examination strategies; and (E) extend cross-examination responses into refutation. (9) Delivery. The student uses effective communication skills in debating. The student is expected to: (A) use precise language and effective verbal skills in argumentation and debate; (B) use effective nonverbal communication in argumentation and debate; (C) use effective critical-listening strategies in argumentation and debate; (D) demonstrate ethical behavior and courtesy during debate; and (E) develop extemporaneous speaking skills. (10) Evaluation. The student evaluates and critiques debates. The student is expected to: (A) use a knowledge of debate principles to develop and apply evaluation standards for various debate formats; and (B) provide valid and constructive written and/or oral critiques of debates.