|(a) Introduction. (1) Students enrolled in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, carefully examining their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Journalism, students are expected to write in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Journalism will learn journalistic traditions, research self-selected topics, write journalistic texts, and learn the principles of publishing. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student demonstrates an understanding of media development, press law, and responsibility. The student is expected to: (A) identify the history and development of American journalism through people and events; (B) identify the foundations of press law, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property; (C) identify the foundations of journalistic ethics; (D) distinguish between responsible and irresponsible media action; and (E) understand the consequences of plagiarism. (2) The student demonstrates an understanding of the different forms of media and the different types of journalistic writing. The student is expected to: (A) distinguish the similarities and differences of print, broadcast, and online media; and (B) distinguish the similarities and differences of news, feature, and opinion writing. (3) The student reports and writes for a variety of audiences and purposes and researches self-selected topics to write journalistic texts. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate an understanding of the elements of news; (B) select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content; (C) locate information sources such as persons, databases, reports, and past interviews; gather background information; and research to prepare for an interview or investigate a topic; (D) plan and write relevant questions for an interview or in-depth research; (E) gather information through interviews (in person or telephone); (F) evaluate and confirm the validity of background information from a variety of sources such as other qualified persons, books, and reports; (G) write copy synthesizing direct and indirect quotes and other research; (H) use journalistic style to write copy; (I) revise and edit copy using appropriate copy editing symbols; (J) rewrite copy; (K) create different forms of journalistic writing such as reviews, ad copy, columns, news, features, and editorials to inform, entertain, and/or persuade; (L) write captions; and (M) demonstrate an understanding of the function of headlines through the writing of headlines. (4) The student demonstrates understanding of the principles of publishing through design using available technologies. The student is expected to: (A) identify the appropriate form of journalistic publication to present content such as newspapers, newsmagazines, online media, broadcasts, and newsletters; (B) design elements into an acceptable presentation; (C) use illustrations or photographs that have been cropped to communicate and emphasize a topic; (D) use graphic devices such as lines, screens, and art to communicate and emphasize a topic; and (E) prepare a layout for publication. (5) The student demonstrates an understanding of the economics of publishing. The student is expected to: (A) understand general salesmanship in selling professional or student-produced publications; (B) differentiate between advertising appeals and propaganda; (C) differentiate between the various types of advertising such as classified, display, public service, and online advertising; and (D) design an advertisement for a particular audience.