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RULE §91.704Real Estate Lending

(a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the following words and terms shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

  (1) First lien means any mortgage that takes priority over any other lien or encumbrance on the same property and that must be satisfied before other liens or encumbrances may share in proceeds from the property's sale.

  (2) Home loan means a loan that is:

    (A) made to one or more individuals for personal, family, or household purposes; and

    (B) secured in whole or part by:

      (i) a manufactured home, as defined by Finance Code §347.002, used or to be used as the borrower's principal residence; or

      (ii) real property improved by a dwelling designed for occupancy by four or fewer families and used or to be used as the borrower's principal residence.

  (3) Improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite improvements, such as access to streets, curbs, and utility connections, sufficient to make the property ready for residential construction, and real estate in the process of being improved by a building.

  (4) Other acceptable collateral means any collateral in which the credit union has a perfected security interest, that has a quantifiable value, and is accepted by the credit union in accordance with safe and sound lending practices.

  (5) Owner-occupied means that the owner of the underlying real property occupies a dwelling unit of the real property as a principal residence.

  (6) Readily marketable collateral means insured deposits, financial instruments, and bullion in which the credit union has a perfected interest. Financial instruments and bullion must be saleable under ordinary circumstances with reasonable promptness at a fair market value determined by quotations based on actual transactions, on an auction or similarly available daily bid and ask price market.

(b) Written Policies. Before engaging in any real estate lending, a credit union shall adopt and maintain written policies that are appropriate for the size of the credit union and the nature and scope of its operation. When formulating the real estate lending policy, the credit union should consider both internal and external factors, such as its size and condition, expertise of its lending staff, avoidance of undue concentrations of risk, compliance with all real estate laws and rules, and general market conditions. Each policy must be consistent with safe and sound lending practices and establish appropriate limits and standards for extensions of credit that are secured by liens on or interests in real estate, or that are made for the purpose of financing permanent improvements to real estate. The policies shall, in addition to the general requirements of §91.701(b) of this title (relating to Lending Powers), address the following, as applicable:

  (1) Title insurance;

  (2) Escrow administration;

  (3) Loan payoffs;

  (4) Collection and foreclosure; and

  (5) Servicing and participation agreements.

(c) Loan to Value Limitations.

  (1) The board of directors shall establish its own internal loan-to-value limits for real estate loans based on type of loan. These internal limits, however, shall not exceed the following regulatory limits:

    (A) Unimproved land held for investment/speculation--Loan to value limit 60%

    (B) Construction and Development: commercial, multifamily, and other nonresidential--Loan to value limit 75%

    (C) Interim Construction: owner-occupied residential real estate--Loan to value limit 90%

    (D) Owner occupied residential real estate (other than home equity)--Loan to value limit 95%

    (E) Other residential real estate such as a second or vacation home--Loan to value limit 90%

    (F) Home equity--Loan to value limit 80%

    (G) All Other--Loan to value limit 80%

  (2) The regulatory loan-to-value limits should be applied to the underlying property that collateralizes the loan. In determining the loan to-value ratio, a credit union shall include the aggregate amount of all sums borrowed, including the outstanding balances, plus any unfunded commitment or line of credit from all sources on an item of collateral, divided by the market value of the collateral used to secure the loan.

(d) Maximum Maturities. Notwithstanding the general 15-year maturity limit on lending transactions to members, credit unions engaged in real estate lending are expected to have loan policies that establish prudent standards for loan structure including tenor and amortization that are within the risk parameters approved by the board of directors and consistent with the following regulatory limits:

  (1) Improved residential real estate loans (principal residence, first lien)--40 years

  (2) Improved residential real estate loans (secondary residence, first lien)--30 years

  (3) Improved residential real estate loans (investment property, first lien)--20 years

  (4) Interim construction loans--18 months

  (5) Manufactured home (first lien)--20 years

  (6) Home equity loans--20 years (second lien)--30 years (first lien)

  (7) Home improvement loans--20 years

  (8) A loan secured in part, by the insurance or guarantee of, or with an advance commitment to purchase the loan, in full or in part, by the Federal Government or any agency of the Federal Government, may be made for the maturity specified in the law, regulations or program under which the insurance, guarantee or commitment is provided

(e) Mortgage Fraud Notice. A credit union must provide to each applicant for a home loan a written notice at closing. The notice must be provided on a separate document, be in at least 14-point type, and have the following or substantially similar language: "Warning: Intentionally or knowingly making a materially false or misleading written statement to obtain property or credit, including a mortgage loan, is a violation of §32.32, Texas Penal Code, and, depending on the amount of the loan or value of the property, is punishable by imprisonment for a term of 2 years to 99 years and a fine not to exceed $10,000. "I/we, the undersigned home loan applicant(s), represent that I/we have received, read, and understand this notice of penalties for making a materially false or misleading written statement to obtain a home loan."I/we represent that all statements and representations contained in my/our written home loan application, including statements or representations regarding my/our identity, employment, annual income, and intent to occupy the residential real property secured by the home loan, are true and correct as of the date of loan closing." On receipt of the notice, the applicant shall verify the information and execute the notice. A credit union must keep the signed notice on file with the records required under §91.701 of this title.

(f) Excluded Transactions. It is recognized that there are a number of lending situations in which other factors significantly outweigh the need to apply the regulatory loan-to-value limits. As a result, an exception to the loan-to-value limits is permissible for the following loan categories:

  (1) Loans that are covered through appropriate credit enhancements in the form of readily marketable collateral or other acceptable collateral.

  (2) Loans guaranteed or insured by the U.S. government or its agencies, provided that the amount of the guaranty or insurance is at least equal to the portion of the loan that exceeds the regulatory loan-to-value limit.

  (3) Loans guaranteed, insured, or otherwise backed by the full faith and credit of the state, a municipality, a county government, or an agency thereof, provided that the amount of the guaranty, insurance, or assurance is at least equal to the portion of the loan that exceeds the regulatory loan-to-value limit.

  (4) Loans that are to be sold promptly after origination, without recourse, to a financially responsible third party.

  (5) Loans that are renewed, refinanced, or restructured without the advancement of new funds or an increase in the line of credit (except for reasonable closing costs) where consistent with safe and sound credit union practices and part of a clearly defined and well-documented program to achieve orderly liquidation of the debt, reduce risk of loss, or maximize recovery on the loan.


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