|(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded
one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.
(1) In World Geography Studies, students examine people,
places, and environments at local, regional, national, and international
scales from the spatial and ecological perspectives of geography.
Students describe the influence of geography on events of the past
and present with emphasis on contemporary issues. A significant portion
of the course centers around the physical processes that shape patterns
in the physical environment; the characteristics of major landforms,
climates, and ecosystems and their interrelationships; the political,
economic, and social processes that shape cultural patterns of regions;
types and patterns of settlement; the distribution and movement of
the world population; relationships among people, places, and environments;
and the concept of region. Students analyze how location affects economic
activities in different economic systems. Students identify the processes
that influence political divisions of the planet and analyze how different
points of view affect the development of public policies. Students
compare how components of culture shape the characteristics of regions
and analyze the impact of technology and human modifications on the
physical environment. Students use problem-solving and decision-making
skills to ask and answer geographic questions.
(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge
and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source
material such as contemporary and historic maps of various types,
satellite-produced images, photographs, graphs, map sketches, and
diagrams is encouraged.
(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and
skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional
purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection
(c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all
essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth
of understanding of complex content material can be attained when
integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and
critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain
the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while
those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative
(4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise
system within the parameters of this course and understand that this
system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.
(5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade
12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics;
government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society;
and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade
level or course, enables students to understand the importance of
patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate
the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced
in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).
(6) Students understand that a constitutional republic
is a representative form of government whose representatives derive
their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established
tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
(7) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations
and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.
(A) Each social studies class shall include, during
Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or
during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees
of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent,
meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the
U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical
contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include
the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document
to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its
ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants,
the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution,
and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation
and the women's suffrage movement.
(B) Each school district shall require that, during
Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under
subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study
and recite the following text from the Declaration of Independence:
"We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created
equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That
to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."
(8) Students discuss how and whether the actions of
U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have achieved
the ideals espoused in the founding documents.
(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) History. The student understands how geography
and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in
the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected
(A) analyze significant physical features and environmental
conditions that have influenced the past and migration patterns and
have shaped the distribution of culture groups today; and
(B) trace the spatial diffusion of phenomena such as
the Columbian Exchange or the diffusion of American popular culture
and describe the effects on regions of contact.
(2) History. The student understands how people, places,
and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes.
The student is expected to:
(A) describe the human and physical characteristics
of the same regions at different periods of time to analyze relationships
between past events and current conditions; and
(B) explain how changes in societies such as population
shifts, technological advancements, and environmental policies have
led to diverse uses of physical features over time such as terrace
farming, dams, and polders.
(3) Geography. The student understands how physical
processes shape patterns in the physical environment. The student
is expected to:
(A) explain weather conditions and climate in relation
to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships;
(B) describe the physical processes that affect the
environments of regions, including weather, tectonic forces, erosion,
and soil-building processes; and
(C) describe how physical processes such as hurricanes,
El Niño, earthquakes, and volcanoes affect the lithosphere,
atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
(4) Geography. The student understands the patterns
and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of
Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student
is expected to:
(A) explain how elevation, latitude, wind systems,
ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers influence
temperature, precipitation, and distribution of climate regions;
(B) describe different landforms such as plains, mountains,
and islands and the physical processes that cause their development;
(C) explain the influence of climate on the distribution
of biomes in different regions.
(5) Geography. The student understands how political,
economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics
in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze how the character of a place is related
to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements; and
(B) interpret political, economic, social, and demographic
indicators (gross domestic product per capita, life expectancy, literacy,
and infant mortality) to determine the level of development and standard
of living in nations using the levels as defined by the Human Development
(6) Geography. The student understands the types, patterns,
and processes of settlement. The student is expected to:
(A) locate and describe human and physical features
that influence the size and distribution of settlements; and
(B) explain the processes that have caused changes
in settlement patterns, including urbanization, transportation, access
to and availability of resources, and economic activities.
(7) Geography. The student understands the growth,
distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The
student is expected to:
(A) analyze population pyramids and use other data,
graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different
societies and to predict future population trends;
(B) explain how physical geography and push and pull
forces, including political, economic, social, and environmental conditions,
affect the routes and flows of human migration;
(C) describe trends in world population growth and
(D) analyze how globalization affects connectivity,
standard of living, pandemics, and loss of local culture.
(8) Geography. The student understands how people,
places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student
is expected to:
(A) compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and
modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture
(B) analyze the consequences of extreme weather and
other natural disasters such as El Niño, floods, tsunamis,
and volcanoes on people and their environment; and
(C) evaluate the economic and political relationships
between settlements and the environment, including sustainable development
and renewable/non-renewable resources.
(9) Geography. The student understands the concept
of region as an area of Earth's surface with related geographic characteristics.
The student is expected to:
(A) identify physical and/or human factors such as
climate, vegetation, language, trade networks, political units, river
systems, and religion that constitute a region; and
(B) describe different types of regions, including
formal, functional, and perceptual regions.
(10) Economics. The student understands the distribution,
characteristics, and interactions of the economic systems in the world.
The student is expected to:
(A) describe the forces that determine the distribution
of goods and services in traditional, free enterprise, socialist,
and communist economic systems;
(B) classify countries along the economic spectrum
between free enterprise and communism;
(C) compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs
through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture
versus commercial agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial
(D) compare global trade patterns over time and analyze
the implications of globalization, including outsourcing and free
(11) Economics. The student understands how geography
influences economic activities. The student is expected to:
(A) understand the connections between levels of development
and economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary);
(B) identify the factors affecting the location of
different types of economic activities, including subsistence and
commercial agriculture, manufacturing, and service industries; and
(C) assess how changes in climate, resources, and infrastructure
(technology, transportation, and communication) affect the location
and patterns of economic activities.
(12) Economics. The student understands the economic
importance of, and issues related to, the location and management
of resources. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze how the creation, distribution, and management
of key natural resources affects the location and patterns of movement
of products, money, and people; and
(B) evaluate the geographic and economic impact of
policies related to the development, use, and scarcity of natural
resources such as regulations of water.
(13) Government. The student understands the spatial
characteristics of a variety of global political units. The student
is expected to:
(A) interpret maps to explain the division of land,
including man-made and natural borders, into separate political units
such as cities, states, or countries; and
(B) compare maps of voting patterns and political boundaries
to make inferences about the distribution of political power.
(14) Government. The student understands the processes
that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The
student is expected to:
(A) analyze current events to infer the physical and
human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other
(B) compare how democracy, dictatorship, monarchy,
republic, theocracy, and totalitarian systems operate in specific