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RULE §116.12Physical Education, Kindergarten, Adopted 2020

(a) Introduction.

  (1) Physical education is the foundation of a well-balanced curriculum. "It is an academic subject with a planned and sequential K-12 curriculum based on the national standards for physical education. Physical education provides cognitive content and instruction designed to develop motor skills, knowledge, and behaviors for physical activity and physical fitness. Supporting schools to establish daily physical education can provide students with the ability and confidence to be physically active for a lifetime" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CDC Healthy Schools, May 2019).

    (A) Physical education is designed to develop motor skills, knowledge, and behaviors for active living, physical fitness, sportsmanship, self-efficacy, and emotional intelligence. Physical education addresses the three domains of learning: cognitive skills related to the knowledge of movement, affective skills related to feelings and attitudes about movement, and psychomotor skills related to the manual or physical skills in movement literacy (SHAPE America, 2014, p. 4).

    (B) Physically literate students have the ability to develop a lifetime of wellness. Physical literacy can be described as the ability to move with competence and confidence, to acquire knowledge and understanding, and to value and take responsibility for engagement in a wide variety of physical activities in multiple environments that benefit the healthy development of the whole person (Mandigo, Francis, Lodewyk & Lopez, 2012, and Whitehead, 2016).

    (C) Research shows physical education is important to the development of the whole child and increases a lifetime of wellness. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development and the National Academy of Medicine support the belief that physical education, taught at a developmentally appropriate level, improves physical fitness and skill development, supports and improves academic achievement, reinforces self-discipline and teacher goal setting, reduces stress and increases blood flow to the brain, strengthens peer relationships, and improves self-confidence and self-esteem.

  (2) The physical education standards are categorized into five strands that are of equal importance and value. The movement patterns and movement skills strand guides the physically literate student in the development of fundamental movement patterns, spatial and body awareness, and rhythmic activities. The performance strategies strand guides the physically literate student in utilizing strategies in fundamental components of games, activities, and outdoor and recreational pursuits. The health, physical activity, and fitness strand encompasses health-related fitness, environmental awareness, and safety practices that guide students to a health-enhancing, physically active lifestyle. The physically literate student demonstrates skills and mechanics used during physical activity and analyzes data used during fitness performance. The physically literate student recognizes the correlation between nutrition, hydration, and physical activity. The social and emotional health strand incorporates working with others, responding to class expectations, and applying self-management skills. The lifetime wellness strand engages students in physical activity for the purposes of self-expression, enjoyment, and challenge.

  (3) Quality physical education programs include a comprehensive curriculum, physical activity, safety policies, safe environments, qualified physical education specialists instructing the class, and student assessment and do not use physical activity as a form of punishment. Texas state law outlines state requirements that support these essential components. In accordance with state law, physical education curriculum and instruction must be sequential, developmentally appropriate, and designed to meet the needs of all students, including students with disabilities and of all physical ability levels. At least 50% of the physical education class must be used for actual student physical activity at a moderate or vigorous intensity level, which aligns with additional state requirements for a minimum number of minutes for moderate or vigorous physical activity in Kindergarten-Grade 8. Required student-to-teacher ratios of 45-to-1 ensure the proper supervision and safety of students in physical education classes, and school districts must identify how student safety will be maintained if that ratio is exceeded. State law also requires that school districts and charter schools annually assess the physical fitness of students in Grade 3 or higher who are enrolled in a physical education course.

  (4) Access to age-appropriate physical education equipment is essential to quality instruction. Basic, age-appropriate equipment for all students is imperative for the development of motor skills, manipulative skills, and eventually becoming a physically literate lifelong learner. Without basic, age-appropriate equipment, students will not have the necessary experiences to become physically literate, lifelong learners. All equipment should be age appropriate for the grade levels to be taught. The term "age appropriate" means that the equipment must include a variety of sizes, weights, and textures to provide differentiated experiences for various ages and ability levels of students. Basic equipment for quality instruction includes, but is not limited to, the following list: sports balls, including fleece balls, foam balls, tennis balls, beach balls, volleyballs, basketballs, soccer balls, footballs, baseballs, softballs, and unity balls; striking implements, including golf clubs, hockey sticks, baseball bats, pool noodles, tennis rackets, racquetball rackets, pickleball paddles, lollipop paddles, and ping pong paddles; goals for various sports, including soccer goals and basketball goals; nets and standards for a variety of sports, including volleyball, pickleball, badminton, and tennis; fitness-related equipment; other basic equipment, including scarves, bean bags, hula hoops, jump ropes, and scooters; classroom management equipment, including cones, mats, pinnies, poly spots, and ball inflators; and technology, including microphones, projectors, speakers, heart rate monitors, timers, and other technology appropriate for instruction.

  (5) In Kindergarten-Grade 5, students learn fundamental movement skills and cues; begin to understand that the body functions in relation to physical activity; develop body control; become aware of the health-related fitness components; begin applying strategies, rules, etiquette, and conflict resolution techniques in dynamic situations; and identify safety practices and protocols while being physically active. Students engage in activities that develop basic levels of strength, endurance, and flexibility. Activities are presented to complement a student's natural inclination to view physical activity as challenging and enjoyable.

  (6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Movement patterns and movement skills--locomotor skills. The physically literate student demonstrates competency in fundamental movement patterns and developmentally appropriate locomotor skills. The student is expected to:

    (A) practice proper foot patterns and form and maintain balance while hopping, galloping, running, sliding, skipping, and walking;

    (B) practice correct technique while jumping in place, forward and backward, and side to side;

    (C) demonstrate visual tracking and tracing, simple balancing, cross lateralization, and sequencing of two skills; and

    (D) spin and roll at different levels, speeds, and positions.

  (2) Movement patterns and movement skills--non-locomotor skills. The physically literate student demonstrates competency in fundamental movement patterns and developmentally appropriate non-locomotor skills. The student is expected to:

    (A) maintain balance while bearing weight using different bases of support; and

    (B) practice bending, stretching, twisting, and curling while maintaining balance.

  (3) Movement patterns and movement skills--manipulative skills. The physically literate student demonstrates competency in developmentally appropriate manipulative skills. The student is expected to:

    (A) self-toss an object and throw underhand with opposite foot forward;

    (B) catch a self-dropped ball before it bounces twice and catch a self-tossed object before it hits the ground;

    (C) practice dribbling with one hand;

    (D) tap a ball using the inside of the foot;

    (E) kick a stationary ball from a stationary position;

    (F) volley a lightweight object to self;

    (G) strike a lightweight object using hand or short-handled implement;

    (H) jump at least once with a self-turned rope; and


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