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RULE §217.74Requirements for Milk Plants Producing Dairy Products

(a) General requirements.

  (1) Plant cleanliness. All rooms in which dairy products are handled, processed or stored, or in which containers, utensils and/or equipment are washed or stored, shall be kept clean, neat and free of evidence of insects and rodents. Only insecticides and rodenticides approved for use by the department and/or registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) shall be used for insect and rodent control. Only equipment directly related to processing operations or the handling of containers, utensils, and equipment shall be permitted in the pasteurizing, processing, cooling, condensing, drying, packaging, and bulk milk or milk product storage rooms. All piping, floors, walls, ceilings, fans, shelves, tables and the non-product-contact surfaces of other facilities and equipment shall be clean. No trash, solid waste or waste dry product shall be stored within the milk plant, except in covered containers. Excessive product dust shall be kept under effective control by the use of exhaust and collective systems designed for in-plant dust control. Tailings and materials collected from exhaust collective systems shall not be used for human consumption.

  (2) Surroundings. The adjacent surroundings shall be free from refuse, rubbish, and waste materials to prevent harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. The premises shall be kept in a clean and orderly condition, and shall be free from strong or foul odors, or smoke. Construction and maintenance of adjacent plant traffic areas shall be of concrete, asphalt, or similar material to keep dust and mud to a minimum.

  (3) Drainage. A suitable drainage system shall be provided which will allow rapid drainage of all water from plant buildings and driveways, including surface water around the plant and on the premises, and all such water shall be disposed of in such a manner as to prevent a nuisance or health hazard and in compliance with state, district, and local regulations.

(b) Buildings.

  (1) The building or buildings shall be of sound construction and shall be kept in good repair to prevent the entrance or harboring of rodents, birds, insects, vermin, dogs, and cats. All service pipe openings through outside walls shall be sealed around the opening or provided with tight metal collars.

  (2) All openings to the outer air shall be effectively protected by: screening or effective electric screen panels; fans or air curtains which provide sufficient air velocity so as to prevent the entrance of insects; properly constructed flaps where it is impractical to use self-closing doors or air curtains; or any effective combination of the above or by any other method which prevents the entrance of insects. All outer doors shall be tight and self-closing. Screen doors shall open outward. All outer openings shall be rodent-proofed to the extent necessary to prevent the entry of rodents.

  (3) The walls, ceilings, partitions, and posts of rooms in which milk or dairy products are processed, manufactured, handled, packaged, or stored (except dry storage of packaged finished products and supplies) or in which utensils are washed and stored, shall be smooth with material that is light colored, resistant to moisture, and easy to keep clean.

  (4) Floors.

    (A) The floors of all rooms in which milk or dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged, or stored or in which utensils are washed shall be constructed of tile laid with impervious joint material, concrete, or other equally impervious material. The floors shall be smooth, kept in good repair, graded so that there will be no pools of standing water or milk products after flushing, and all openings to the drains shall be equipped with traps properly constructed and kept in good repair.

    (B) Sound, smooth wood floors which can be kept clean, may be used in rooms where new containers and supplies and packaged finished products are stored.

  (5) Lighting and ventilation.

    (A) Adequate light sources shall be provided (natural, artificial or a combination of both) which furnish at least 20 foot-candles (220 lux) of light in all working areas. This shall apply to all rooms where milk or milk products are handled, processed, packaged, or stored; or where containers, utensils and/or equipment are washed. Dry storage and cold storage rooms shall be provided with at least five foot-candles (55 lux) of light.

    (B) Ventilation in all rooms shall be sufficient to keep them reasonably free of odors and excessive condensation on equipment, walls and ceilings.

    (C) Pressurized ventilating systems, if used, shall have a filtered air intake.

    (D) For milk plants that condense and/or dry milk or milk products, ventilating systems in packaging rooms, where used, shall be separate systems and where possible have the ducts installed in a vertical position.

  (6) Rooms and compartments.

    (A) Pasteurizing, processing, reconstitution, cooling, condensing, drying, and packaging of milk and milk products shall be conducted in a single room, or separate rooms, but not in the same room used for the cleaning of milk cans, portable storage bins, bottles and cases, or the unloading and/or cleaning and sanitizing of milk tank trucks, provided that these rooms may be separated by solid partitioning doors that are kept closed. Handwashing of milk cans, portable storage bins, bottles and cases may be permitted in a single room, provided that these operations are conducted in a manner that precludes contamination of the finished dairy product. Cooling, either plate or tubular, may be done in the room where milk tank trucks are unloaded and/or cleaned and sanitized. Separation/clarification of raw milk may be done in an enclosed room where milk tank trucks are unloaded and/or cleaned and sanitized.

    (B) Coolers and freezers. Coolers and freezers where dairy products are stored shall be clean, dry and maintained at a uniform temperature and humidity to protect the product from deterioration, and minimize the growth of mold. Circulation of air shall maintain uniform temperature and humidity at all times. Coolers and freezers shall be free from rodents, insects, and pests. Shelves shall be kept clean and dry. Refrigeration units shall have provisions for collecting and disposing of condensate.

      (i) Bulk milk and milk products shall be handled and stored to maintain an internal temperature of 45 degrees F or below.

      (ii) Packaged milk and milk products shall be handled and stored to maintain an internal temperature of 41 degrees F or below.

      (iii) Freezers shall be maintained so that frozen food remains frozen at all times.

    (C) Supply rooms. The supply rooms used for the storing of packaging materials, containers, and miscellaneous ingredients shall be kept clean, dry, orderly, free from insects, rodents, and mold, and maintained in good repair. These items stored therein shall be adequately protected from dust, dirt, or other extraneous matter, and so arranged on racks, shelves, or pallets to permit access to the supplies and cleaning and inspection of the room. Insecticides, rodenticides and cleaning compounds shall be properly labeled and segregated, and stored in a separate room or cabinet away from milk, dairy products, ingredients, or packaging supplies.

    (D) Boiler and tool rooms. The boiler and tool rooms shall be separated from other rooms where milk and dairy products are processed, manufactured, packaged, handled, or stored. The rooms shall be kept orderly and reasonably free from dust and dirt.

    (E) Toilet and dressing rooms. Toilet facilities shall be provided and be conveniently located. Toilet rooms may not open directly into any room in which milk and/or milk products are processed, condensed or dried, and stored. Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed and have tight-fitting, self-closing doors. Dressing rooms, toilet rooms, and fixtures are kept in a clean condition, in good repair and are well ventilated and well lighted. Toilet tissue and easily cleanable covered waste receptacles shall be provided in toilet rooms. All plumbing shall be installed to meet the applicable provisions of the state or local plumbing code. Sewage and other liquid wastes shall be disposed of in a sanitary manner, and non-water-carried sewage disposal facilities shall not be used.

    (F) Starter facilities. Sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of starter cultures.

  (7) Handwashing facilities. Handwashing facilities shall be provided, including hot and cold running water, soap or other detergents, and sanitary single-service towels or air dryers. The facilities shall be located in or adjacent to toilet and dressing rooms and also at such other places in the plant as may be essential to the cleanliness of all personnel handling products. Vats for washing equipment or utensils shall not be used as handwashing facilities. Self-closing metal or plastic containers shall be provided for used towels and other wastes.

  (8) Drinking water facilities. Drinking water facilities shall be provided in the plant and shall be conveniently located.

(c) Facilities.

  (1) Water supply.

    (A) Water for milk plant purposes shall be from an adequate supply, properly located, protected, and operated. It shall be easily accessible and of a safe, sanitary quality.

    (B) The water supply shall be approved as safe by the State Water Control Authority and, in the case of individual water systems, complies with the specification outlined in Appendix D of the most current revision of the "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance" which is adopted by reference in §217.2 of this title (relating to Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance), and the Bacteriological Standards outlined in Appendix G of the most current revision of the "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance."

    (C) There shall be no cross-connection between the safe water supply and any unsafe or questionable water supply, or any source of pollution through which the safe water supply might become contaminated. A connection between the water supply piping and a make-up tank, such as for cooling or condensing, unless protected by an air gap or effective backflow preventer, constitutes a violation of this requirement. An approved air gap is defined as the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere of at least twice the diameter of the largest incoming water supply pipe or faucet to the flood level of the vessel or receptacle. The distance of the air gap is to be measured from the bottom of the potable inlet supply pipe or faucet to the top of the effective overflow, i.e., flood level rim or internal overflow, of the vessel. In no case, may the effective air gap be less than one inch (2.54 cm).

    (D) Condensing water for milk or milk product evaporators, and water used to produce vacuum and/or to condense vapors in vacuum heat processing equipment, shall be from a source complying with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph. When approved by the department, water from sources not complying with subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, may be used when the evaporator or vacuum heat equipment is constructed and operated to preclude contamination of such equipment, or its contents, by condensing water or by water used to produce vacuum. Means of preventing such contamination are:

      (i) use of a surface type condenser in which the condensing water is physically separated from the vapors and condensate; or

      (ii) use of reliable safeguards to prevent the overflow of condensing water from the condenser into the evaporator. Such safeguards include a barometric leg extending at least 35 feet vertically from the invert of the outgoing condensing water line to the free level at which the leg discharges, or a safety shutoff valve, located on the water feed line to the condenser, automatically actuated by a control which will shut off the in-flowing water when the water level rises above a predetermined point in the condenser. This valve may be actuated by water, air or electricity, and shall be designed so that failure of the primary motivating power will automatically stop the flow of water into the condenser.

    (E) Condensing water for milk or milk product evaporators, complying with subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and water reclaimed from milk or milk products may be reused when all necessary means of protection are afforded and it complies with the procedures outlined in Appendix D, Part V of the most current revision of the "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance."

    (F) New individual water supplies and water supply systems, which have been repaired or otherwise become contaminated, shall be disinfected before being placed in use. The supply shall be made free of the disinfectant by pumping to waste before any sample for bacteriological testing shall be collected.

    (G) Samples for bacteriological testing of individual water supplies shall be taken upon the initial approval of the physical structure, each six months thereafter, and when any repair or alteration of the water supply system has been made. Samples shall be taken by the department and examinations shall be conducted in an official laboratory. To determine if water samples have been taken at the frequency established in this section, the interval shall include the designated six month period plus the remaining days of the month in which the sample is due.

    (H) Current records of water test results are retained by the department.

    (I) A potable water supply, which meets the criteria of this section, may be connected to the product feed line of a steam vacuum evaporator, provided that the water supply is protected at the point of connection by an approved backflow prevention device.

  (2) Air under pressure which is in direct contact with milk and milk products and milk product-contact surfaces.


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