|(a) Introduction. (1) Reading I, II, III offers students reading instruction to successfully navigate academic demands as well as attain life-long literacy skills. Specific instruction in word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension strategies, and fluency provides students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding. Students learn how traditional and electronic texts are organized and how authors choose language for effect. All of these strategies are applied in instructional-level and independent-level texts that cross the content areas. (2) For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning. (3) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples. (4) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section. (b) Knowledge and skills. (1) The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to: (A) apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and (B) use reference guides such as dictionaries, glossaries, and available technology to determine pronunciations of unfamiliar words. (2) The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to: (A) expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing; (B) determine word meanings through the study of their relationships to other words and concepts such as content, synonyms, antonyms, and analogies; (C) recognize the implied meanings of words such as idiomatic expressions, homonyms, puns, and connotations; (D) apply the knowledge of roots, affixes, and word origins to infer meanings; and (E) use available reference guides such as dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine or confirm the meanings of new words and phrases. (3) The student reads for a variety of purposes with multiple sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to: (A) read functional texts to complete real-world tasks such as job applications, recipes, and product assembly instructions; (B) read to complete academic tasks; (C) read using test-taking skills such as highlighting, annotating, previewing questions, noticing key words, employing process of elimination, allotting time, and following directions; (D) read to gain content/background knowledge as well as insight about oneself, others, or the world; and (E) read for enjoyment. (4) The student comprehends texts using effective strategies. The student is expected to: (A) use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend; (B) determine and adjust purpose for reading; (C) self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by using appropriate strategies; (D) summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details; (E) construct visual images based on text descriptions; (F) use study skills such as previewing, highlighting, annotating, note taking, and outlining; and (G) use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading. (5) The student draws complex inferences and analyzes and evaluates information within and across texts of varying lengths. The student is expected to: (A) find similarities and differences across texts such as explanations, points of view, or themes; (B) identify explicit and implicit meanings of texts; (C) support inferences with text evidence and experience; (D) analyze text to draw conclusions, state generalizations, and make predictions supported by text evidence; and (E) distinguish facts from simple assertions and opinions. (6) The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of the sources. The student is expected to: (A) identify and analyze the audience, purpose, and message of the text; (B) evaluate the credibility and relevance of informational sources; (C) analyze the presentation of information and the strength of quality of the evidence used by the author; and (D) evaluate the author's motivation, stance, or position and its effect on the validity of the text. (7) The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding and varied texts. The student is expected to: (A) read silently or orally such as paired reading or literature circles for sustained periods of time; and (B) adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading. (8) The student formulates and supports responses to a wide variety of texts. The student is expected to: (A) respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways; (B) respond to text in multiple ways such as discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual/symbolic representation; (C) support responses with prior knowledge and experience; and (D) support responses with explicit textual information. (9) The student reads and responds to informational texts. The student is expected to: (A) generate relevant and interesting questions; (B) use text features and graphics to form an overview to determine where to locate information; (C) analyze the use of common expository text structures such as sequence, description, compare/contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution; (D) organize and record new information in systematic ways such as outlines, charts, and graphic organizers; and (E) communicate information gained from reading. (10) The student reads to increase knowledge of one's own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to: (A) compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and (B) recognize literary themes and connections that cross cultures.