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RULE §289.202Standards for Protection Against Radiation from Radioactive Materials

(a) Purpose.

  (1) This section establishes standards for protection against ionizing radiation resulting from activities conducted in accordance with licenses issued by the agency.

  (2) The requirements in this section are designed to control the receipt, possession, use, and transfer of sources of radiation by any licensee so the total dose to an individual, including doses resulting from all sources of radiation other than background radiation, does not exceed the standards for protection against radiation prescribed in this section. However, nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting actions that may be necessary to protect health and safety in an emergency.

(b) Scope.

  (1) Except as specifically provided in other sections of this chapter, this section applies to persons who receive, possess, use, or transfer sources of radiation, unless otherwise exempted. No person may use, manufacture, produce, transport, transfer, receive, acquire, own, possess, process, or dispose of sources of radiation unless that person has a license or exemption from the agency. The dose limits in this section do not apply to doses due to background radiation, to exposure of patients to radiation for the purpose of medical diagnosis or therapy, to exposure from individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with this chapter, or to voluntary participation in medical research programs. However, no radiation may be deliberately applied to human beings except by or under the supervision of an individual authorized by and licensed in accordance with Texas' statutes to engage in the healing arts.

  (2) Licensees who are also registered by the agency to receive, possess, use, and transfer radiation machines shall also comply with the requirements of §289.231 of this title (relating to General Provisions and Standards for Protection Against Machine-Produced Radiation).

(c) Definitions. The following words and terms when used in this section shall have the following meaning, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

  (1) Air-purifying respirator--A respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

  (2) Annual limit on intake (ALI)--The derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by Reference Man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert (Sv)) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 Sv) to any individual organ or tissue. ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table I of subsection (ggg)(2) of this section.

  (3) Assigned protection factor (APF)--The expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users. Operationally, the inhaled concentration can be estimated by dividing the ambient airborne concentration by the APF.

  (4) Atmosphere-supplying respirator--A respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

  (5) Class--A classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which apply to a range of clearance half-times: for Class D, Days, of less than 10 days; for Class W, Weeks, from 10 to 100 days, and for Class Y, Years, of greater than 100 days. For purposes of this section, lung class and inhalation class are equivalent terms.

  (6) Debris--The remains of something destroyed, disintegrated, or decayed. Debris does not include soils, sludges, liquids, gases, naturally occurring radioactive material regulated in accordance with §289.259 of this title (relating to Licensing of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)), or low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) received from other persons.

  (7) Declared pregnant woman--A woman who has voluntarily informed the licensee, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception. The declaration remains in effect until the declared pregnant woman voluntarily withdraws the declaration in writing or is no longer pregnant.

  (8) Demand respirator--An atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

  (9) Derived air concentration (DAC)--The concentration of a given radionuclide in air that, if breathed by Reference Man for a working year of 2,000 hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of 1 ALI. For purposes of this section, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for 2,000 hours in a year. DAC values are given in Column 3 of Table I of subsection (ggg)(2) of this section.

  (10) Derived air concentration-hour (DAC-hour)--The product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee may take 2,000 DAC-hours to represent ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 Sv).

  (11) Disposable respirator--A respirator for which maintenance is not intended and that is designed to be discarded after excessive breathing resistance, sorbent exhaustion, physical damage, or end-of-service-life renders it unsuitable for use. Examples of this type of respirator are a disposable half-mask respirator or a disposable escape-only self-contained breathing apparatus.

  (12) Dosimetry processor--A person that processes and evaluates personnel monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.

  (13) Filtering facepiece (dust mask)--A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium, not equipped with elastomeric sealing surfaces and adjustable straps.

  (14) Fit factor--A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

  (15) Fit test--The use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.

  (16) Helmet--A rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

  (17) Hood--A respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

  (18) Inhalation class (see definition for Class).

  (19) Loose-fitting facepiece--A respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

  (20) Lung class (see definition for Class).

  (21) Nationally tracked source--A sealed source containing a quantity equal to or greater than Category 1 or Category 2 levels of any radioactive material listed in subsection (hhh)(2) of this section. In this context a sealed source is defined as radioactive material that is sealed in a capsule or closely bonded, in a solid form and which is not exempt from regulatory control. It does not mean material encapsulated solely for disposal, or nuclear material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Category 1 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 1 threshold. Category 2 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 2 threshold but less than the Category 1 threshold.

  (22) Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting)--A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

  (23) Nonstochastic effect--A health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. For purposes of this section, deterministic effect is an equivalent term.

  (24) Planned special exposure--An infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.

  (25) Positive pressure respirator--A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

  (26) Powered air-purifying respirator--An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

  (27) Pressure demand respirator--A positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

  (28) Qualitative fit test--A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

  (29) Quantitative fit test--An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

  (30) Quarter--A period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately 13 consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.

  (31) Reference man--A hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus. These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health employees to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base. A description of Reference Man is contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report, ICRP Publication 23, "Report of the Task Group on Reference Man."

  (32) Respiratory protective equipment--An apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.

  (33) Sanitary sewerage--A system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.

  (34) Self-contained breathing apparatus--An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

  (35) Stochastic effect--A health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects. For purposes of this section probabilistic effect is an equivalent term.

  (36) Supplied-air respirator or airline respirator--An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

  (37) Tight-fitting facepiece--A respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

  (38) User seal check (fit check)--An action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. Examples include negative pressure check, positive pressure check, irritant smoke check, or isoamyl acetate check.

  (39) Weighting factor wT for an organ or tissue (T)--The proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:

Attached Graphic

(d) Implementation.

  (1) Any existing license condition that is more restrictive than this section remains in force until there is an amendment or renewal of the license that modifies or removes this condition.

  (2) If a license condition exempts a licensee from a provision of this section in effect on or before January 1, 1994, it also exempts the licensee from the corresponding provision of this section.

  (3) If a license condition cites provisions of this section in effect prior to January 1, 1994, that do not correspond to any provisions of this section, the license condition remains in force until there is an amendment or renewal of the license that modifies or removes this condition.

(e) Radiation protection programs.

  (1) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement a radiation protection program sufficient to ensure compliance with the provisions of this section. See subsection (mm) of this section for recordkeeping requirements relating to these programs. Documentation of the radiation protection program may be incorporated in the licensee's operating, safety, and emergency procedures.


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