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RULE §113.41United States History Studies Since 1877 (One Credit), Adopted 2018

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) In United States History Studies Since 1877, which is the second part of a two-year study that begins in Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from 1877 to the present. The course content is based on the founding documents of the U.S. government, which provide a framework for its heritage. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to industrialization and urbanization, major wars, domestic and foreign policies, and reform movements, including civil rights. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major events and eras and analyze their causes and effects. Students examine the impact of constitutional issues on American society, evaluate the dynamic relationship of the three branches of the federal government, and analyze efforts to expand the democratic process. Students describe the relationship between the arts and popular culture and the times during which they were created. Students analyze the impact of technological innovations on American life. Students use critical-thinking skills and a variety of primary and secondary source material to explain and apply different methods that historians use to understand and interpret the past, including multiple points of view and historical context.

  (2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies, autobiographies, landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court, novels, speeches, letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

  (3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

  (4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

  (5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

  (6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

  (7) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

    (A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

    (B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text from the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

  (8) Students discuss how and whether the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have achieved the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) History. The student understands the principles included in the Celebrate Freedom Week program. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze and evaluate the text, intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights;

    (B) analyze and evaluate the application of these founding principles to historical events in U.S. history; and

    (C) explain the meaning and historical significance of the mottos "E Pluribus Unum" and "In God We Trust."

  (2) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics; and

    (B) explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968 (Martin Luther King Jr. assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).

  (3) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political machines, and civil service reform;

    (B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the growth of entrepreneurship, and the pros and cons of big business; and

    (C) analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, and urbanization.

  (4) History. The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain why significant events, policies, and individuals, including the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, and Sanford B. Dole moved the United States into the position of a world power;

    (B) evaluate American expansionism, including acquisitions such as Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico;

    (C) identify the causes of World War I and reasons for U.S. entry;

    (D) understand the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing, including the Battle of Argonne Forest;

    (E) analyze the impact of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, and trench warfare as significant technological innovations in World War I on the Western Front; and

    (F) analyze major issues raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, including isolationism, neutrality, Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles.

  (5) History. The student understands the effects of reform and third-party movements in the early 20th century. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze the impact of Progressive Era reforms, including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments;

    (B) evaluate the impact of muckrakers and reform leaders such as Upton Sinclair, Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Ida B. Wells, and W. E. B. DuBois on American society; and

    (C) analyze the impact of third parties, including the Populist and Progressive parties.

  (6) History. The student understands significant events, social issues, and individuals of the 1920s. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze causes and effects of events and social issues such as immigration, Social Darwinism, the Scopes Trial, eugenics, race relations, nativism, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women; and

    (B) analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Henry Ford, Marcus Garvey, and Charles A. Lindbergh.

  (7) History. The student understands the domestic and international impact of U.S. participation in World War II. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the aggression of Italian, German, and Japanese dictatorships, especially the attack on Pearl Harbor;

    (B) evaluate the domestic and international leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman during World War II, including the U.S. relationship with its allies;

    (C) analyze major issues of World War II, including the Holocaust, the internment of Japanese Americans as a result of Executive Order 9066, and the development of atomic weapons;

    (D) analyze major military events of World War II, including fighting the war on multiple fronts, the Bataan Death March, the U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands, the Battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the liberation of concentration camps;

    (E) describe the military contributions of leaders during World War II, including Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, and Chester W. Nimitz;

    (F) explain issues affecting the home front, including volunteerism, the purchase of war bonds, and Victory Gardens and opportunities and obstacles for women and ethnic minorities; and

    (G) explain how American patriotism inspired high levels of military enlistment and the bravery and contributions of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Flying Tigers, and the Navajo Code Talkers.

  (8) History. The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts in the Cold War on the United States. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and John F. Kennedy's role in the Cuban Missile Crisis;

    (B) describe how Cold War tensions were intensified by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), McCarthyism, the arms race, and the space race;

    (C) explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in the Korean War and its relationship to the containment policy;

    (D) explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in foreign countries and their relationship to the Domino Theory, including the Vietnam War;

    (E) analyze the major events of the Vietnam War, including the escalation of forces, the Tet Offensive, Vietnamization, and the fall of Saigon; and

    (F) describe the responses to the Vietnam War such as the draft, the 26th Amendment, the role of the media, the credibility gap, the silent majority, and the anti-war movement.

  (9) History. The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The student is expected to:

    (A) trace the historical development of the civil rights movement from the late 1800s through the 21st century, including the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 19th amendments;

    (B) explain how Jim Crow laws and the Ku Klux Klan created obstacles to civil rights for minorities such as the suppression of voting;

    (C) describe the roles of political organizations that promoted African American, Chicano, American Indian, and women's civil rights;

    (D) identify the roles of significant leaders who supported various rights movements, including Martin Luther King Jr., Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Rosa Parks, and Betty Friedan;

    (E) compare and contrast the approach taken by the Black Panthers with the nonviolent approach of Martin Luther King Jr.;

    (F) discuss the impact of the writings of Martin Luther King Jr. such as his "I Have a Dream" speech and "Letter from Birmingham Jail" on the civil rights movement;

    (G) describe presidential actions and congressional votes to address minority rights in the United States, including desegregation of the armed forces, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965;

    (H) explain how George Wallace, Orval Faubus, and the Congressional bloc of southern Democrats sought to maintain the status quo;


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