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RULE §110.2English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017

(a) Introduction.

  (1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

  (2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

  (3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

  (4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

  (5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

  (6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

  (7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

    (A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

    (B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

    (C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

    (D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

    (E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

  (2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

    (A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

      (i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

      (ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

      (iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

      (iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

      (v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

      (vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

      (vii) blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

      (viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

      (ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

      (x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

    (B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

      (i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

      (ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

      (iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip - tap; and

      (iv) identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

    (C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

      (i) spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

      (ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

      (iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

    (D) demonstrate print awareness by:

      (i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

      (ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

      (iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

      (iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

      (v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

    (E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

  (3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

    (A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

    (B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

    (C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

  (4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.


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