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TITLE 19EDUCATION
PART 2TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY
CHAPTER 113TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES
SUBCHAPTER AELEMENTARY
RULE §113.15Social Studies, Grade 4, Adopted 2018

(a) Introduction.

  (1) In Grade 4, students examine the history of Texas from the early beginnings to the present within the context of influences of North America. Historical content focuses on Texas history, including the Texas Revolution, establishment of the Republic of Texas, and subsequent annexation to the United States. Students discuss important issues, events, and individuals of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Students conduct a thorough study of regions in Texas and North America resulting from human activity and from physical features. The location, distribution, and patterns of economic activities and settlement in Texas further enhance the concept of regions. Students describe how early American Indians in Texas and North America met their basic economic needs. Students identify motivations for European exploration and colonization and reasons for the establishment of Spanish settlements and missions. Students explain how American Indians governed themselves and identify characteristics of Spanish colonial and Mexican governments in Texas. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag. Students identify the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas and describe the impact of science and technology on life in the state. Students use critical-thinking skills to identify cause-and-effect relationships, compare and contrast, and make generalizations and predictions.

  (2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as documents, biographies, novels, speeches, letters, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Where appropriate, local topics should be included. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

  (3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

  (4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

  (5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

  (6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

  (7) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

    (A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

    (B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text from the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

  (8) Students discuss how and whether the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have achieved the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) History. The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas before European exploration. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas;

    (B) identify and compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;

    (C) describe the cultural regions in which American Indians lived such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern; and

    (D) locate American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo.

  (2) History. The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion;

    (B) identify the accomplishments and explain the impact of significant explorers, including Cabeza de Vaca; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, on the settlement of Texas;

    (C) explain when, where, and why the Spanish established settlements and Catholic missions in Texas as well as important individuals;

    (D) identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas; and

    (E) identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.

  (3) History. The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto;

    (B) summarize the significant contributions of individuals such as William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett, Juan N. Seguín, Plácido Benavides, José Francisco Ruiz, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Susanna Dickinson, and Enrique Esparza;

    (C) identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including José Antonio Navarro, Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones;

    (D) describe the successes, problems, and organizations of the Republic of Texas such as the establishment of a constitution, economic struggles, relations with American Indians, and the Texas Rangers; and

    (E) explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States and the impact of the U.S.-Mexican War.

  (4) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas;

    (B) explain the growth, development, and impact of the cattle industry such as contributions made by Charles Goodnight, Richard King, and Lizzie Johnson;

    (C) explain the effects of the railroad industry on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and

    (D) explain the effects on American Indian life brought about by the Red River War, building of U.S. forts and railroads, and loss of buffalo.

  (5) History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the impact of various events on life in Texas such as the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II and notable individuals such as Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, and Bessie Coleman and other local individuals; and

    (B) explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry on industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including Spindletop and important people such as Pattillo Higgins.

  (6) Geography. The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify, locate, and describe the physical regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains), including their characteristics such as landforms, climate, vegetation, and economic activities; and

    (B) compare the physical regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains).

  (7) Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the geographic factors such as landforms and climate that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in Texas, past and present; and

    (B) identify and explain patterns of settlement such as the location of towns and cities in Texas at different time periods.

  (8) Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams;

    (B) explain reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs, facilitate transportation, and enhance recreational activities; and

    (C) compare the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present.

  (9) Economics. The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) explain the economic activities various early American Indian groups in Texas used to meet their needs and wants such as farming, trading, and hunting; and

    (B) explain the economic activities early settlers to Texas used to meet their needs and wants.

  (10) Economics. The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) describe how the free enterprise system works, including supply and demand;

    (B) identify examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system such as choice and opportunity; and

    (C) describe the development of the free enterprise system in Texas such as the growth of cash crops by early colonists and the railroad boom.

  (11) Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify how people in different regions of Texas earn their living, past and present;

    (B) explain how physical geographic factors such as climate and natural resources have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas;

    (C) identify the effects of exploration, immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of Texas; and

    (D) explain how developments in transportation and communication have influenced economic activities in Texas.

  (12) Government. The student understands how people organized governments in different ways during the early development of Texas. The student is expected to:

    (A) compare how various American Indian groups such as the Caddo and the Comanche governed themselves; and

    (B) compare characteristics of the Spanish colonial government and the early Mexican governments in Texas.

  (13) Government. The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to:

    (A) identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence and the Texas Constitution;

    (B) identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of government according to the Texas Constitution; and

Cont'd...

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