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RULE §127.766Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2012-2013

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisite: Algebra II. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12.

(b) Introduction.

  (1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

  (2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services, including laboratory and testing services, and research and development services.

  (3) Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science provides the tools used in most areas of computer science. Exposure to the mathematical concepts and discrete structures presented in this course is essential in order to provide an adequate foundation for further study. Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science is generally listed as a core requirement for Computer Science majors. Course topics are divided into six areas: sets, functions, and relations; basic logic; proof techniques; counting basics; graphs and trees; and discrete probability. Mathematical topics are interwoven with computer science applications to enhance the students' understanding of the introduced mathematics. Students will develop the ability to see computational problems from a mathematical perspective. Introduced to a formal system (propositional and predicate logic) upon which mathematical reasoning is based, students will acquire the necessary knowledge to read and construct mathematical arguments (proofs), understand mathematical statements (theorems), and use mathematical problem-solving tools and strategies. Students will be introduced to discrete data structures such as sets, discrete functions, and relations and graphs and trees. Students will also be introduced to discrete probability and expectations. The six strands include creativity and innovation; communication and collaboration; research and information fluency; critical thinking; problem solving, and decision making; digital citizenship; and technology operations and concepts.

  (4) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

  (5) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

  (1) Creativity and innovation. The student develops products and generates new understanding by extending existing knowledge. The student is expected to:

    (A) model algorithms and real-world situations using formal tools of symbolic logic;

    (B) model computer science problems by using graphs and trees; and

    (C) calculate the probabilities of events and expectations of random variables for such problems as games of chance.

  (2) Communication and collaboration. The student communicates and collaborates with peers to contribute to his or her own learning and the learning of others. The student is expected to:

    (A) convert spoken language statements to appropriate statements in propositional logic;

    (B) explain basic terminology of sets, functions, and relations;

    (C) state the definition of the Master theorem;

    (D) use the context of a particular application to interpret the meaning derived when computing the permutations and combinations of a set;

    (E) interpret associated operations and terminology in context; and

    (F) define and provide examples of logical equivalence, normal forms, validity, and modus ponens/modus tollens.

  (3) Research and information fluency. The student locates, analyzes, processes, and organizes data. The student is expected to:

    (A) construct truth tables for negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, biconditional, and bit operators; and

    (B) use truth tables to demonstrate propositional relations.

  (4) Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze problems and design algorithms. The student is expected to:

    (A) analyze practical examples using appropriate models of sets, functions, and relations;

    (B) compare and contrast tautology, contradiction, and contingency as related to propositional equivalences;

    (C) compare and contrast examples and use of counterexamples, contrapositions, and contradictions;

    (D) describe the appropriate use and limitations of predicate logic;

    (E) apply formal methods of symbolic propositional and predicate logic;

    (F) use formal logic proofs and logical reasoning to solve problems;

    (G) outline the basic structure of proofs, including direct, indirect, contradiction, induction, existence, and constructive proofs;

    (H) compare and contrast the types of problems best satisfied by direct, indirect, contradiction, induction, existence, and constructive proofs;

    (I) relate mathematical induction to recursion and recursively defined structures;

    (J) compare and contrast weak, strong, and structural induction, including when each is most appropriately used and examples of each;

    (K) compare and contrast dependent and independent events;

    (L) use recurrence equations to analyze algorithms and other practical problems;

    (M) use counting techniques to analyze algorithms and other practical problems;

    (N) apply probability tools to solve problems; and

    (O) define, compare, and contrast simple graphs, multigraphs, and directed and undirected graphs using definitions, properties, and examples, including special cases.

  (5) Digital citizenship. The student explores and understands safety, legal, cultural, and societal issues relating to the use of technology and information. The student is expected to:

    (A) model ethical acquisition and use of digital information;

    (B) demonstrate proper digital etiquette, responsible use of software, and knowledge of acceptable use policies; and

    (C) investigate how the concepts of discrete mathematics are related to relevant problems and significant questions.

  (6) Technology operations and concepts. The student understands technology concepts, systems, and operations as they apply to computer science. The student is expected to:

    (A) perform operations associated with sets, functions, and relations;

    (B) apply basic counting principles, including cardinality and the pigeonhole principle;

    (C) apply appropriate precedence when using logical operators;

    (D) use appropriate strategies, including De Morgan's Laws, to identify propositional equivalences;

    (E) identify and appropriately use predicates, existential and universal quantifiers, and valid arguments;

    (F) identify possible applications of proofs, including evaluating algorithmic complexity;

    (G) state and appropriately use the product and sum rules;

    (H) compute permutations and combinations of a set;

    (I) solve a variety of basic recurrence equations;

    (J) apply the binomial theorem to independent events;

    (K) apply Bayes' theorem to dependent events;

    (L) demonstrate transversal methods for trees and graphs; and

    (M) relate graphs and trees to data structures, algorithms, and counting.

Source Note: The provisions of this §127.766 adopted to be effective April 7, 2022, 47 TexReg 1677

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