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RULE §336.359Appendix B. Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sanitary Sewerage

(a) Introduction. For each radionuclide, Table I indicates the chemical form that is to be used for selecting the appropriate ALI or DAC value. The ALIs and DACs for inhalation are given for an aerosol with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1 micrometer and for three classes (D,W,Y) of radioactive material, which refer to their retention (approximately days, weeks, or years) in the pulmonary region of the lung. This classification applies to a range of clearance half-times for D of less than 10 days, for W from 10 to 100 days, and for Y greater than 100 days.

  (1) The class (D, W, or Y) given in the column headed "Class" applies only to the inhalation ALIs and DACs given in Table I, Columns 2 and 3. Table II provides concentration limits for airborne and liquid effluents released to the general environment. Table III provides concentration limits for discharges to sanitary sewerage.

  (2) The values in Tables I, II, and III are presented in the computer "E" notation. In this notation, a value of 6E-02 represents a value of 6 x 10-2 or 0.06, 6E+2 represents 6 x 102 or 600, and 6E+0 represents 6 x 100 or 6. Values are given in units of microcuries (µCi) or microcuries per milliliter (µCi/ml), as indicated.

(b) Table I, "Occupational Values". Note that the columns in Table I of this appendix captioned "Oral Ingestion ALI," "Inhalation ALI," and "DAC," are applicable to occupational exposure to radioactive material.

  (1) The ALIs in this appendix are the annual intakes of a given radionuclide by "reference man" that would result in either a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert) (stochastic ALI) or a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems (0.5 sievert) to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in a risk, due to irradiation of organs and tissues, comparable to the risk associated with deep dose equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems (0.05 sievert). The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to an organ or tissue by a weighting factor, wT . This weighting factor is the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of the organ or tissue, T, to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. The values of w T are listed under the definition of "weighting factor" in §336.2 of this title (relating to Definitions). The non-stochastic ALIs were derived to avoid non-stochastic effects, such as prompt damage to tissue or reduction in organ function.

  (2) A value of wT = 0.06 is applicable to each of the five organs or tissues in the "remainder" category receiving the highest dose equivalents, and the dose equivalents of all other remaining tissues may be disregarded. The following parts of the GI tract--stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and lower large intestine--are to be treated as four separate organs.

  (3) Note that the dose equivalents for an extremity, skin, and lens of the eye are not considered in computing the committed effective dose equivalent but are subject to limits that must be met separately. When an ALI is defined by the stochastic dose limit, this value alone is given.

  (4) When an ALI is determined by the non-stochastic dose limit to an organ, the organ or tissue to which the limit applies is shown, and the ALI for the stochastic limit is shown in parentheses. The following abbreviated organ or tissue designations are used:

    (A) LLI wall = lower large intestine wall;

    (B) St wall = stomach wall;

    (C) Blad wall = bladder wall; and

    (D) Bone surf = bone surface.

  (5) The use of the ALIs listed first, the more limiting of the stochastic and non-stochastic ALIs, will ensure that non-stochastic effects are avoided and that the risk of stochastic effects is limited to an acceptably low value. If, in a particular situation involving a radionuclide for which the non-stochastic ALI is limiting, use of that non-stochastic ALI is considered unduly conservative, the licensee may use the stochastic ALI to determine the committed effective dose equivalent. However, the licensee shall also ensure that the 50-rem (0.5 sievert) dose equivalent limit for any organ or tissue is not exceeded by the sum of the external deep dose equivalent plus the internal committed dose equivalent to that organ (not the effective dose). For the case where there is no external dose contribution, this would be demonstrated if the sum of the fractions of the nonstochastic ALIs (ALIns ) that contribute to the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose does not exceed 1 (i.e., Sigma (intake in µCi of each radionuclide/ALIns ) < 1.0). If there is an external deep-dose equivalent contribution of Hd , then this sum must be less than 1 - (Hd /50), instead of < 1.0.

  (6) The DAC values are derived limits intended to control chronic occupational exposures. The relationship between the DAC and the ALI is given by:

Attached Graphic

  (7) The DAC values relate to one of two modes of exposure: either external submersion or the internal committed dose equivalents resulting from inhalation of radioactive materials. The DAC values based upon submersion are for immersion in a semi-infinite cloud of uniform concentration and apply to each radionuclide separately.

  (8) The ALI and DAC values include contributions to exposure by the single radionuclide named and any in-growth of daughter radionuclides produced in the body by decay of the parent. However, intakes that include both the parent and daughter radionuclides shall be treated by the general method appropriate for mixtures.

  (9) The values of ALI and DAC do not apply directly when the individual both ingests and inhales a radionuclide, when the individual is exposed to a mixture of radionuclides by either inhalation or ingestion or both, or when the individual is exposed to both internal and external irradiation (see §336.306 of this title (relating to Compliance with Requirements for Summation of External and Internal Doses)). When an individual is exposed to radioactive materials which fall under several of the translocation classifications of the same radionuclide (i.e., Class D, Class W, or Class Y), the exposure may be evaluated as if it were a mixture of different radionuclides.

  (10) It shall be noted that the classification of a compound as Class D, W, or Y is based on the chemical form of the compound and does not take into account the radiological half-life of different radionuclides. For this reason, values are given for Class D, W, and Y compounds, even for very short-lived radionuclides.

(c) Table II, "Effluent Concentrations". The columns in Table II of this appendix captioned "Effluent Concentrations," "Air," and "Water" are applicable to the assessment and control of dose to the public, particularly in the implementation of the provisions of §336.314 of this title (relating to Compliance with Dose Limits for Individual Members of the Public). The concentration values given in Columns 1 and 2 of Table II are equivalent to the radionuclide concentrations which, if inhaled or ingested continuously over the course of a year, would produce a total effective dose equivalent of 0.05 rem (0.5 millisievert).

  (1) Consideration of non-stochastic limits has not been included in deriving the air and water effluent concentration limits because non-stochastic effects are presumed not to occur at or below the dose levels established for individual members of the public. For radionuclides, where the non-stochastic limit was governing in deriving the occupational DAC, the stochastic ALI was used in deriving the corresponding airborne effluent limit in Table II. For this reason, the DAC and airborne effluent limits are not always proportional.

  (2) The air concentration values listed in Table II, Column 1, were derived by one of two methods. For those radionuclides for which the stochastic limit is governing, the occupational stochastic inhalation ALI was divided by 2.4 x 109 ml, relating the inhalation ALI to the DAC and then divided by a factor of 300. The factor of 300 is composed of a factor of 50 to relate the 5-rem (0.05 sievert) annual occupational dose limit to the 0.1 rem (1 millisievert) limit for members of the public, a factor of 3 to adjust for the difference in exposure time and the inhalation rate for a worker and that for members of the public; and a factor of 2 to adjust the occupational values (derived for adults) so that they are applicable to other age groups.

  (3) For those radionuclides for which submersion (external dose) is limiting, the occupational DAC in Table I, Column 3, was divided by 219. The factor of 219 is composed of a factor of 50 and a factor of 4.38 relating occupational exposure for 2,000 hours/year to full-time exposure (8,760 hours/year). Note that an additional factor of 2 for age considerations is not warranted in the submersion case.


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